American Samoa( Australia-Oceania )


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Background:
Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was not reached by European explorers until the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.
Geography
Location:
Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
14 20 S, 170 00 W
Area:
total: 199 sq km
land: 199 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island
Area comparative:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
116 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Lata Mountain 964 m
Natural resources:
pumice, pumicite
Land use:
arable land: 9.5%
permanent crops: 15%
other: 75.5% (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
typhoons common from December to March
volcanism: limited volcanic activity on the Ofu and Olosega Islands; neither has erupted since the 19th century
Environment current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: American Samoan(s) (US nationals)
adjective: American Samoan
Ethnic groups:
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 91.6%, Asian 2.8%, white 1.1%, mixed 4.2%, other 0.3% (2000 est.)
Languages:
Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%, other 2%
note: most people are bilingual (2000 census)
Religions:
Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and other 30%
Population:
54,517 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.9% (male 6,671/female 6,917)
15-24 years: 20.2% (male 5,468/female 5,565)
25-54 years: 41.7% (male 11,694/female 11,056)
55-64 years: 8.2% (male 2,211/female 2,260)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 1,234/female 1,441) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
total: 28.3 years
male: 28.8 years
female: 27.8 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.35% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
22.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
4.68 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-21.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 93.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.87% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
PAGO PAGO (capital) 64,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.92 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.91 years
male: 71.96 years
female: 78.04 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.98 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 62.5% of population
rural: 62.5% of population
total: 62.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 37.5% of population
rural: 37.5% of population
total: 37.5% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
74.6% (2007)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 97% (1980 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa
abbreviation: AS
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: Pago Pago
geographic coordinates: 14 16 S, 170 42 W
time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
National holiday:
Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
Constitution:
ratified 2 June 1966, effective 1 July 1967 (2013)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of US common law and customary law
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
head of government: Governor Lolo Matalasi MOLIGA (since 3 January 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet made up of 12 department directors
elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 November 2012 with a runoff held on 20 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
election results: runoff election percent of vote - Lolo Matalasi MOLIGA 52.9%, Faoa Aitofele SUNIA 47.1%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (21 seats; 20 members are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014); Senate - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independents 18; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independents 20
note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): High Court of American Samoa (consists of the chief justice, associate chief justice, and 6 Samoan associate judges and organized into trial, family, drug, and appellate divisions)
note - American Samoa has no US federal courts
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and associate chief justice appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior to serve for life; Samoan associate judges appointed by the governor to serve for life
subordinate courts: district and village courts
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]
Republican Party [Tautai A. F. FAALEVAO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Population Pressure LAS (addresses the growing population pressures)
International organization participation:
AOSIS, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, PIF (observer), SPC, UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of the US)
Flag description:
blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a war club known as a "Fa'alaufa'i" (upper; left talon), and a coconut fiber fly whisk known as a "Fue" (lower; right talon); the combination of symbols broadly mimics that seen on the US Great Seal and reflects the relationship between the United States and American Samoa
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
name: "Amerika Samoa" (American Samoa)
lyrics/music: Mariota Tiumalu TUIASOSOPO/Napoleon Andrew TUITELELEAPAGA
note: local anthem adopted 1950; as a territory of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States)
Economy
Economy overview:
American Samoa has a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US with which American Samoa conducts most of its commerce. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector with canned tuna the primary export. The two tuna canneries account for 80% of employment. In late September 2009, an earthquake and the resulting tsunami devastated American Samoa and nearby Samoa, disrupting transportation and power generation, and resulting in about 200 deaths. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency is overseeing a relief program of nearly $25 million. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism is a promising developing sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$575.3 million (2007 est.)
$510.1 million (2003 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$462.2 million (2005)
GDP real growth rate:
3% (2003)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$8,000 (2007 est.)
$5,800 (2005 est.)
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Agriculture products:
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock
Industries:
tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Labor force:
17,630 (2005)
Labor force by occupation:
Unemployment rate:
29.8% (2005)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $155.4 million
expenditures: $183.6 million (2007 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
33.6% of GDP (2007)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of narrow money:
Stock of broad money:
Stock of domestic credit:
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
Exports:
$445.6 million (FY04 est.)
Exports commodities:
canned tuna 93%
Exports partners:
Imports:
$308.8 million (FY04 est.)
Imports commodities:
raw materials for canneries, food, petroleum products, machinery and parts
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
the US dollar is used
Energy
Electricity production:
155 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity consumption:
147.9 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
60,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
5,115 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
2,003 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
426,200 Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: good telex, telegraph, facsimile, and cellular telephone services
domestic: domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
international: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean)
Telephones main lines in use:
10,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
3 TV stations; multi-channel pay TV services are available; about a dozen radio stations, some of which are repeater stations (2009)
Internet country code:
.as
Internet users:
NA
Internet hosts:
2,387 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
3 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 241 km (2008)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Pago Pago
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 14,562
females age 16-49: 14,129 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 775
female: 762 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island (Olosega) in its 2006 draft independence constitution
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: