Anguilla( Central America and Caribbean )


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Background:
Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.
Geography
Location:
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates:
18 15 N, 63 10 W
Area:
total: 91 sq km
land: 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
about one-half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
61 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m
Natural resources:
salt, fish, lobster
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
Environment current issues:
supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan
Ethnic groups:
black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other 1.5% (2001 census)
Languages:
English (official)
Religions:
Protestant 83.1% (Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%), Roman Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified 4.3% (2001 census)
Population:
16,086 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 23.3% (male 1,918/female 1,826)
15-24 years: 14.1% (male 1,123/female 1,144)
25-54 years: 45% (male 3,269/female 3,965)
55-64 years: 9.4% (male 744/female 763)
65 years and over: 8.3% (male 658/female 676) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
total: 34.1 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 35.7 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.06% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
12.68 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
4.54 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
12.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
THE VALLEY (capital) 2,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.2 years
male: 78.61 years
female: 83.86 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
43%
note: percent of women aged 15-45 (2003)
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 94.6% of population
total: 94.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 5.4% of population
total: 5.4% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 97.9% of population
total: 97.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2008)
Literacy:
definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2008)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: The Valley
geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)
Constitution:
several previous; latest 1 April 1982; amended 1990 (2013)
Legal system:
common law based on the English model
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Christina SCOTT (since 23 July 2013)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 February 2010)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 February 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AUM 4, AUF 2, APP 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Anguilla; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; High Court judges reside in 7 member states, though none resides on Anguilla
judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court
Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Brent DAVIS]
Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]
Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA)
Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength
National symbol(s):
dolphin
National anthem:
name: "God Bless Anguilla"
lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON
note: local anthem adopted 1981; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Economy
Economy overview:
Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contributing to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$175.4 million (2009 est.)
$191.7 million (2008 est.)
$108.9 million (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$175.4 million (2009 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
-8.5% (2009 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$12,200 (2008 est.)
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 74.5%
government consumption: 20.1%
investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -60.4%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 23.6%
services: 73.8% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising
Industries:
tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Industrial production growth rate:
2% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
6,049 (2001)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4%
manufacturing: 3%
construction: 18%
transportation and utilities: 10%
commerce: 36%
services: 29% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8% (2002)
Population below poverty line:
23% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $69.52 million
expenditures: $78.37 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
39.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
20% of GDP (2013 est.)
21.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.1% (2013 est.)
4.4% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
9.38% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$16.89 million (31 December 2013 est.)
NA% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$384.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$373.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$498.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$483.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
-$54.3 million (2013 est.)
-$44.8 million (2012 est.)
Exports:
$12.2 million (2013 est.)
$7.3 million (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum
Exports partners:
Imports:
$140.1 million (2013 est.)
$129.3 million (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
$8.8 million (1998)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2013 est.)
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.), 2.7 (2009)
Energy
Electricity production:
Electricity consumption:
Electricity exports:
Electricity imports:
Electricity installed generating capacity:
Electricity from fossil fuels:
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
Electricity from other renewable sources:
Crude oil production:
Crude oil exports:
Crude oil imports:
Crude oil proved reserves:
Refined petroleum products production:
Refined petroleum products consumption:
Refined petroleum products exports:
Refined petroleum products imports:
Natural gas production:
Natural gas consumption:
Natural gas exports:
Natural gas imports:
Natural gas proved reserves:
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
26,000 (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern internal telephone system
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 170 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
6,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned (2007)
Internet country code:
.ai
Internet users:
3,700 (2009)
Internet hosts:
269 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
2 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 175 km
paved: 82 km
unpaved: 93 km (2004)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,641 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,009
females age 16-49: 3,397 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 111
female: 113 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: