Antigua and Barbuda( Central America and Caribbean )

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The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates:
17 03 N, 61 48 W
total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
Area comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
153 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Natural resources:
NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use:
arable land: 9.09%
permanent crops: 2.27%
other: 88.64% (2011)
Irrigated land:
1.3 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
0.05 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 0.01 cu km/yr (63%/21%/15%)
per capita: 97.67 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Environment current issues:
water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
People and Society
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups:
black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
English (official), local dialects
Protestant 76.4% (Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%), Roman Catholic 10.4%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
91,295 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.3% (male 11,289/female 10,932)
15-24 years: 16.8% (male 7,588/female 7,723)
25-54 years: 42.6% (male 17,789/female 21,137)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 3,694/female 4,441)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,886/female 3,816) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 46.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 35.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10.4 %
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 31.1 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 32.6 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.25% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
15.94 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 29.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 27,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 13.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.12 years
male: 74.04 years
female: 78.3 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.03 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (1999)
Hospital bed density:
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 97.9% of population
rural: 97.9% of population
total: 97.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population
rural: 2.1% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
HIV or AIDS deaths:
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
25.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
2.4% of GDP (2009)
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 99%
male: 98.4%
female: 99.4% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2012)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 19.9%
male: 18.4%
female: 21.6% (2001)
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Government type:
constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm
name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
1 November 1981 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981) (2011)
Legal system:
common law based on the English model
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 56.4% UPP 42%; seats by party - ALP 14, UPP 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda
note - Antigua and Barbuda replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London as the final appellate court; also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]
Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL (since 8 March 2005)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Flag description:
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
Economy overview:
Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009-11. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.61 billion (2013 est.)
$1.583 billion (2012 est.)
$1.558 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.22 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
1.7% (2013 est.)
1.6% (2012 est.)
-3% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$18,400 (2013 est.)
$18,100 (2012 est.)
$17,800 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
18% of GDP (2013 est.)
18% of GDP (2012 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 55.8%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 28%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 46.2%
imports of goods and services: -45%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 16.4%
services: 81.4% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
30,000 (1991)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
Unemployment rate:
11% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
revenues: $239.5 million
expenditures: $248.7 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
19.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
89% of GDP (2012 est.)
130% of GDP (2010 est.)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (2013 est.)
3.4% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
10.13% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$213 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$205.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$1.044 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.033 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.111 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.111 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
-$164.8 million (2013 est.)
-$78.5 million (2012 est.)
$55 million (2013 est.)
$56.7 million (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
Exports partners:
$340.8 million (2013 est.)
$402.7 million (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
$441.2 million (31 December 2012)
$458 million (June 2010)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2013 est.)
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)
Electricity production:
115 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
107 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
27,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
5,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
240 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
4,790 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
731,600 Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
179,800 (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good automatic telephone system
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 200 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
35,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
65,000 (2009)
Internet hosts:
11,532 (2012)
3 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 1,170 km
paved: 386 km
unpaved: 784 km (2011)
Merchant marine:
total: 1,257
by type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Saint John's
Military branches:
Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 21,141
females age 16-49: 24,056 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 17,676
females age 16-49: 19,960 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 806
female: 799 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: