Cambodia( East & Southeast Asia )


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Background:
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, with little of the pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful, as were commune council elections in June 2012.
Geography
Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 105 00 E
Area:
total: 181,035 sq km
land: 176,515 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
total: 2,530 km
border countries: Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km
Coastline:
443 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resources:
oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land: 22.09%
permanent crops: 0.86%
other: 77.05% (2011)
Irrigated land:
3,536 sq km (2006)
Total renewable water resources:
476.1 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 2.18 cu km/yr (4%/2%/94%)
per capita: 159.8 cu m/yr (2006)
Natural hazards:
monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment current issues:
illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography note:
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groups:
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Languages:
Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
Religions:
Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)
Population:
15,458,332
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.6% (male 2,460,659/female 2,423,619)
15-24 years: 20.5% (male 1,565,135/female 1,596,099)
25-54 years: 38.9% (male 2,938,366/female 3,082,496)
55-64 years: 5.1% (male 298,733/female 482,588)
65 years and over: 4% (male 229,684/female 380,953) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 57.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 49 %
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6 %
potential support ratio: 11.6 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.1 years
male: 23.4 years
female: 24.8 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.63% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
24.4 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
7.78 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 20% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.55 million (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 51.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
250 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.78 years
male: 61.35 years
female: 66.32 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.66 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
50.5% (2010/11)
Health expenditures:
5.7% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 93.9% of population
rural: 65.6% of population
total: 71.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 34.4% of population
total: 28.7% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 25.5% of population
total: 36.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 74.5% of population
total: 63.2% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.8% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
76,400 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
2,700 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
2.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
29% (2011)
Education expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2010)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.9%
male: 82.8%
female: 65.9% (2009 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 10 years (2008)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 1,345,269
percentage: 39 % (2001 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 3.4%
male: 3.5%
female: 3.3% (2008)
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
Government type:
multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo
municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)
Independence:
9 November 1953 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitution:
previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008 (2008)
Legal system:
civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004); BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007); KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008); KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: the king chosen by a Royal Throne Council from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Legislative branch:
bicameral, consists of the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, CNRP (SRP) 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, CNRP (SRP) 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, NRP 44.5%, FUNCINPEC 3.9%, others 2.8%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 9-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: municipal and provincial courts; appellate courts; military court
Political parties and leaders:
Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]
Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [SAM RANGSI also spelled SAM RAINSY]
National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]
Nationalist Party or NP former Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [SAO RANY]
note: the CNRP is a merger between the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA] and the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Cambodian Freedom Fighters or CFF
Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; vendors
International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CICA (observer), EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINUSMA, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador HENG HEM (since 29 January 2009)
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William E. TODD (since 17 April 2012)
embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors
note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design
National symbol(s):
Angkor Wat temple; kouprey (wild ox)
National anthem:
name: "Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)
lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL
note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime
Economy
Economy overview:
Since 2004, garments, construction, agriculture, and tourism have driven Cambodia's growth. GDP climbed more than 7% per year between 2010 and 2013. The garment industry currently employs more about 400,000 people and accounts for about 70% of Cambodia's total exports. In 2005, exploitable oil deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a potential revenue stream for the government, if commercial extraction becomes feasible. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems. The tourism industry has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching over 3 million visitors in 2012. Cambodia, nevertheless, remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited educational opportunities, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. Approximately 4 million people live on less than $1.25 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure. The Cambodian Government is working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 50% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$39.64 billion (2013 est.)
$37.04 billion (2012 est.)
$34.52 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$15.64 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
7% (2013 est.)
7.3% (2012 est.)
7.1% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$2,600 (2013 est.)
$2,400 (2012 est.)
$2,300 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
9.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
12% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 74.7%
government consumption: 7.7%
investment in fixed capital: 16.4%
investment in inventories: 2.1%
exports of goods and services: 65.3%
imports of goods and services: -66.2%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 34.8%
industry: 24.5%
services: 40.7% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk
Industries:
tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
9.5% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
7.9 million (2011 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 55.8%
industry: 16.9%
services: 27.3% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate:
0% (2011 est.)
0.3% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line:
20% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 37.3% (2007)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
37.9 (2008 est.)
41.9 (2004 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $2.685 billion
expenditures: $3.1 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
17.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
NA% of GDP
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2013 est.)
2.9% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
NA% (31 December 2012)
5.25% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13% (31 December 2013 est.)
12.98% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$1.206 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$995.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$8.373 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$5.705 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.801 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
-$1.262 billion (2013 est.)
-$1.208 billion (2012 est.)
Exports:
$6.781 billion (2013 est.)
$6.016 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports partners:
US 32.6%, UK 8.3%, Germany 7.7%, Canada 7.7%, Singapore 6.6%, Vietnam 5.7%, Japan 4.7% (2012)
Imports:
$8.895 billion (2013 est.)
$7.965 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports partners:
Thailand 27.1%, Vietnam 20.3%, China 19.5%, Singapore 7.1%, Hong Kong 5.8%, South Korea 4.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.415 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.938 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$4.912 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.567 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
riels (KHR) per US dollar -
4,037.6 (2013 est.)
4,033 (2012 est.)
4,184.9 (2010 est.)
4,139 (2009)
4,070.94 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
1.019 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity consumption:
2.573 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
1.83 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
359,900 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
94.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
3.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
1.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0.5 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
39,350 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
26,250 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.39 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
19.1 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 4 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, is increasing rapidly and stands at 92 per 100 persons
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
584,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operated or privately owned with some broadcasting from several locations, and 2 TV relay stations - one relaying a French TV station and the other relaying a Vietnamese TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite systems are available; roughly 50 radio broadcast stations - 1 state-owned broadcaster with multiple stations and a large mixture of public and private broadcasters; several international broadcasters are available (2009)
Internet country code:
.kh
Internet users:
78,500 (2009)
Internet hosts:
13,784 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
16 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
Railways:
total: 690 km
narrow gauge: 690 km 1.000-m gauge
note: under restoration (2010)
Roadways:
total: 39,618 km
paved: 2,492 km
unpaved: 37,126 km (2009)
Merchant marine:
total: 544
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, Vietnam 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)
Military
Military branches:
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,883,724
females age 16-49: 4,003,585 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,638,167
females age 16-49: 2,965,328 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 151,143
female: 154,542 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.54% of GDP (2012)
1.5% of GDP (2011)
1.54% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Cambodian men, women, and children migrate to countries within the region for legitimate work but are subsequently subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, debt bondage, or forced labor; the inability to understand formal obligations, read contracts, or pay processing fees, and inadequate government regulatory oversight renders some Cambodian migrant workers vulnerable to such exploitation; poor Cambodian children are subject to forced labor, including forced begging in Thailand and Vietnam; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked from rural areas to urban centers for sexual exploitation; Cambodian men are the main exploiters of child prostitutes, but men from other Asian countries, the US, and Europe travel to Cambodia for child sex tourism
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has prosecuted and convicted fewer trafficking offenders and identified fewer victims than in the previous year; corruption continues to impede anti-trafficking endeavors; authorities systematically refer identified victims to NGO shelters, which provide the majority of services but lack long-term care services, making victims, particularly children, vulnerable to re-trafficking; the government has established a migration working group within its anti-trafficking committee to better address the exploitation of Cambodian workers abroad, but laws governing migrant workers abroad remain weak (2013)