Christmas Island( Australia-Oceania )


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Background:
Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed and settlement began by the UK in 1888 with the discovery of the island's phosphate deposits. Following the Second World War, Christmas Island came under the jurisdiction of the new British Colony of Singapore. The island existed as a separate Crown colony from 1 January 1958 to 1 October 1958 when its transfer to Australian jurisdiction was finalized. That date is still celebrated on the first Monday in October as Territory Day. Almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.
Geography
Location:
Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
10 30 S, 105 40 E
Area:
total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
about three-quarters the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
138.9 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical with a wet season (December to April) and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m
Natural resources:
phosphate, beaches
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (mainly tropical rainforest; 63% of the island is a national park) (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Environment current issues:
loss of rainforest; impact of phosphate mining
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island
Ethnic groups:
Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10%
note: no indigenous population (2001)
Languages:
English (official), Chinese, Malay
Religions:
Buddhist 36%, Muslim 25%, Christian 18%, other 21% (1997)
Population:
1,530 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
Population growth rate:
1.11% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
Death rate:
Net migration rate:
Urbanization:
Major urban areas population:
Sex ratio:
NA (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:
NA (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
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Drinking water source:
Sanitation facility access:
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
NA
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form: Christmas Island
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: The Settlement
geographic coordinates: 10 25 S, 105 43 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:
Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Constitution:
1 October 1958 (Christmas Island Act 1958); amended many times, last in 2010 (Territories Law Reform Act 2010) (2010)
Legal system:
legal system is under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator Jon STANHOPE (since 5 October 2012)
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a two-year term and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch:
unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: held every two years with half the members standing for election; last held In 2011 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): under the terms of the Territorial Law Reform Act 1992, Western Australia provides court services as needed for the island including the Supreme Court and subordinate courts (District Court, Magistrate Court, Family Court, Children's Court, and Coroners' Court)
judge selection and term of office:
subordinate courts:
Political parties and leaders:
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
none
International organization participation:
none
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag description:
territorial flag; divided diagonally from upper hoist to lower fly; the upper triangle is green with a yellow image of the Golden Bosun Bird superimposed; the lower triangle is blue with the Southern Cross constellation, representing Australia, superimposed; a centered yellow disk displays a green map of the island
note: the flag of Australia is used for official purposes
National symbol(s):
golden bosun bird
National anthem:
note: as a territory of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair" remains official as the national anthem, while "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see Australia)
Economy
Economy overview:
The main economic activities on Christmas Island are the mining of low grade phosphate, limited tourism, the provision of government services and more recently the construction and operation of the Immigration Detention Center. The government sector includes administration, health, education, policing, customs, quarantine and defense.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$NA
GDP (official exchange rate):
GDP real growth rate:
GDP per capita (PPP):
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GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture products:
NA
Industries:
tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Industrial production growth rate:
Labor force:
NA
Labor force by occupation:
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
Taxes and other revenues:
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
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Stock of narrow money:
Stock of broad money:
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Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
Exports:
$NA
Exports commodities:
phosphate
Exports partners:
Imports:
$NA
Imports commodities:
consumer goods
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
1.031 (2013)
0.9658 (2012)
1.0902 (2010)
1.2822 (2009)
1.2059 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
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Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular telephone service replaced older analog system in February 2005
international: country code - 61-8; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat provides telephone and telex service) (2005)
Telephones main lines in use:
Broadcast media:
1 community radio station; satellite broadcasts of several Australian radio and TV stations (2009)
Internet country code:
.cx
Internet users:
464 (2001)
Internet hosts:
3,028 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
1 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
total: 18 km
standard gauge: 18 km 1.435-m (not in operation) (2010)
Roadways:
total: 140 km
paved: 30 km
unpaved: 110 km (2011)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Flying Fish Cove
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: