Cocos (Keeling) Islands( Australia-Oceania )


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Background:
There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William KEELING discovered the islands in 1609, but they remained uninhabited until the 19th century. From the 1820s to 1978, members of the CLUNIE-ROSS family controlled the islands and the copra produced from local coconuts. Annexed by the UK in 1857, the Cocos Islands were transferred to the Australian Government in 1955. Apart from North Keeling Island, which lies 30 kilometers north of the main group, the islands form a horseshoe-shaped atoll surrounding a lagoon. North Keeling Island was declared a national park in 1995 and is administered by Parks Australia. The population on the two inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.
Geography
Location:
Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest of Indonesia, about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka
Geographic coordinates:
12 30 S, 96 50 E
Area:
total: 14 sq km
land: 14 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
Area comparative:
about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
26 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year
Terrain:
flat, low-lying coral atolls
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
cyclone season is October to April
Environment current issues:
freshwater resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation; site of a World War I naval battle in November 1914 between the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney and the German raider SMS Emden; after being heavily damaged in the engagement, the Emden was beached by her captain on North Keeling Island
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Cocos Islander(s)
adjective: Cocos Islander
Ethnic groups:
Europeans, Cocos Malays
Languages:
Malay (Cocos dialect), English
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 80%, other 20% (2002 est.)
Population:
596 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
Population growth rate:
0% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
Death rate:
Net migration rate:
Urbanization:
Major urban areas population:
Sex ratio:
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:
NA (2014 est.)
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Physicians density:
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Sanitation facility access:
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
NA
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: West Island
geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 96 50 E
time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:
Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Constitution:
23 November 1955 (Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955); amended many times, last in 2010 (2010)
Legal system:
common law based on the Australian model
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator (nonresident) Jon STANHOPE (since 5 October 2012)
cabinet: NA
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a two-year term and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch:
unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (7 seats)
elections: held every two years with half the members standing for election; last held in October 2011 (next to be held in October 2013)
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): under the terms of the Territorial Law Reform Act 1992, Western Australia provides court services as needed for the island including the Supreme Court and subordinate courts (District Court, Magistrate Court, Family Court, Children's Court, and Coroners' Court)
judge selection and term of office: NA
subordinate courts: NA
Political parties and leaders:
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
The Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre
International organization participation:
none
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag description:
the flag of Australia is used
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
note: as a territory of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair" remains official as the national anthem, while "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see Australia)
Economy
Economy overview:
Coconuts, grown throughout the islands, are the sole cash crop. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia. There is a small tourist industry.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$NA
GDP (official exchange rate):
GDP real growth rate:
1% (2003)
GDP per capita (PPP):
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture products:
vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Industries:
copra products, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Labor force:
NA
Labor force by occupation:
note: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers; tourism is the other main source of employment
Unemployment rate:
60% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
Taxes and other revenues:
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Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
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Stock of broad money:
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Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
Exports:
$NA
Exports commodities:
copra
Exports partners:
Imports:
$NA
Imports commodities:
foodstuffs
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
1.031 (2013)
0.9658 (2012)
1.0902 (2010)
1.2822 (2009)
1.2059 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
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Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: telephone service is part of the Australian network; an operational local mobile-cellular network available; wireless Internet connectivity available
domestic: NA
international: country code - 61; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat) (2001)
Telephones main lines in use:
Broadcast media:
1 local radio station staffed by community volunteers; satellite broadcasts of several Australian radio and TV stations available (2009)
Internet country code:
.cc
Internet users:
Internet hosts:
42,820 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
1 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 22 km
paved: 10 km
unpaved: 12 km (2007)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Port Refuge
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: