Croatia( Europe )


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Background:
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.
Geography
Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Area:
total: 56,594 sq km
land: 55,974 sq km
water: 620 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 2,237 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
Coastline:
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 15.85%
permanent crops: 1.47%
other: 82.69% (2011)
Irrigated land:
36.27 sq km (2010)
Total renewable water resources:
105.5 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment current issues:
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
Languages:
Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
Population:
4,470,534 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.5% (male 332,079/female 314,842)
15-24 years: 12.1% (male 275,957/female 263,796)
25-54 years: 41.1% (male 910,591/female 928,434)
55-64 years: 14.5% (male 315,791/female 334,017)
65 years and over: 17.4% (male 320,898/female 474,129) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 50 %
youth dependency ratio: 22 %
elderly dependency ratio: 27.9 %
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 42.1 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 43.9 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.12% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
9.49 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
12.13 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 57.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
ZAGREB (capital) 686,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.41 years
male: 72.81 years
female: 80.2 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.45 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
7.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density:
2.72 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 96.8% of population
total: 98.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 3.2% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 97.6% of population
total: 98.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 2.4% of population
total: 1.8% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
24.2% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
4.3% of GDP (2010)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.9%
male: 99.5%
female: 98.3% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 43.1%
male: 42.3%
female: 44.3% (2012)
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
name: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska, Brodsko-Posavska, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka, Krapinsko-Zagorska, Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska, Osjecko-Baranjska, Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska, Sibensko-Kninska, Sisacko-Moslavacka, Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska, Viroviticko-Podravska, Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990; amended several times, last in December 2013 by referendum
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ivo JOSIPOVIC (since 18 February 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Zoran MILANOVIC (since 23 December 2011); First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna PUSIC (since 16 November 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the assembly
election results: Ivo JOSIPOVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Ivo JOSIPOVIC 60%, Milan BANDIC 40%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (151 seats; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms; each of 10 electoral districts elect 14 members, Croatian citizens abroad vote as an electoral district and elect 3 members, national minorities vote as an electoral district and elect 8 members)
elections: last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in late 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Kukuriku 40.0%, HDZ-led Coalitiion 23.8%, Croatian Laborists-Labor Party 5.1%, HSS 3.0%, HDSSB 2.9%, Independent list of Ivan Grubisic 2.8%, HCSP-HSP AS 2.8%, other 19.6%; number of seats by party/coalition - Kukuriku 80 (SDP 61, HNS 13, IDS 3, HSU 3), HDZ-led coalition 47 (HDZ 44, HGS 2, DC 1), Croatian Laborists-Labor Party 6, HDSSB 6, SDSS 3, Independent list of Ivan Grubisic 2, HSS 1, HCSP-HSP AS 1, other 5
note: seats by party as of 25 March 2014 - SDP 58, HDZ 42, HNS 13, HDSSB 7, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party 6, HSU 4, SDSS 3, HGS 2, IDS 2, BDSH 1, DC 1, HSS 1, HSP AS 1, ORaH 1, independents 9
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system
Political parties and leaders:
Bosniak Democratic Party of Croatia or BDSH [Medzad HODZIC]
Croatian Civic Party or HGS [Zeljko KERUM]
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Vladimir SISLJAGIC]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Tomislav KARAMARKO]
Croatian Laborists - Labor Party [Dragutin LESAR]
Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Ruza TOMASIC]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG]
Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]
Croatian Pure Party of Rights or HCSP [Josip MILJIC]
Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]
HDZ-led Coalition [Tomislav KARAMARKO] (includes HDZ, HGS, and DC)
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]
Independent List of Ivan Grubisic [Ivan GRUBISIC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]
Kukuriku Coalition [Zoran MILANOVIC] (includes SDP, HNS, IDS, and HSU)
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
Sustainable Development for Croatia or ORaH [Mirela HOLY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: human rights groups
International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josko PARO (since 20 April 2012)
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth MERTEN (since 3 October 2012)
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions, they are (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National symbol(s):
red-white checkerboard
National anthem:
name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891
Economy
Economy overview:
Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and has yet to recover; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009. Difficult problems still remain, including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. Croatia continues to face reduced foreign investment. On 1 July 2013 Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt, which triggered the EU’s excessive deficit procedure for fiscal consolidation. Zagreb has cut spending since 2012, and the government also raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the Value Added Tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$78.9 billion (2013 est.)
$79.7 billion (2012 est.)
$81.3 billion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$59.14 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
-1% (2013 est.)
-1.9% (2012 est.)
-0.2% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$17,800 (2013 est.)
$17,900 (2012 est.)
$18,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
19.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
19.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 59.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 18.5%
investment in inventories: 1.7%
exports of goods and services: 44.4%
imports of goods and services: -43.8%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 25.8%
services: 69.2% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
Industries:
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
-1.8% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
1.715 million (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 29%
services: 69% (2012)
Unemployment rate:
21.6% (2013 est.)
19.1% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line:
21.1% (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.5% (2008 est.)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
32 (2010)
29 (1998)
Budget:
revenues: $17.87 billion
expenditures: $20.43 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
36.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
66.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
55.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2013 est.)
3.4% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
7% (31 December 2013 est.)
7% (31 December 2012 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9% (31 December 2013 est.)
9.48% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$10.38 billion (31 January 2014 est.)
$10.64 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$49.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$493.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$46.65 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$46.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$21.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$23.24 billion (31 December 2012)
$23.75 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Current account balance:
-$102.3 million (2013 est.)
-$17.59 million (2012 est.)
Exports:
$12.36 billion (2013 est.)
$13.16 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports partners:
Italy 14.1%, Bosnia Herzegovina 13.1%, Germany 11.1%, Slovenia 10.1%, Austria 6.3% (2012 est.)
Imports:
$21.74 billion (2013 est.)
$22.16 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
Imports partners:
Germany 13.7%, Italy 12.5%, Slovenia 11.5%, Austria 9.1%, Hungary 6.2%, Russia 5.4% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$11.46 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$11.95 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$60.47 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$61.39 billion (2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$37.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$36.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$6.081 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.581 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
kuna (HRK) per US dollar -
5.775 (2013 est.)
5.8503 (2012 est.)
5.498 (2010 est.)
5.2692 (2009)
4.98 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
14.24 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity consumption:
16.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity exports:
3.294 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity imports:
6.844 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
4.132 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
45.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
44.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
2.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
11,930 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil imports:
51,470 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
71 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
65,410 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
74,410 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
30,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
26,670 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas production:
1.863 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
2.755 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas exports:
392 million cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas imports:
1.137 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
22.35 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
4.97 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
domestic: fixed-line teledensity holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions exceed the population
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
1.64 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT), operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012)
Internet country code:
.hr
Internet users:
2.234 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
729,420 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
69 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)
Railways:
total: 2,722 km
standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (984 km electrified) (2011)
Roadways:
total: 29,410 km (includes 1,254 km of expressways) (2011)
Merchant marine:
total: 77
by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 2)
registered in other countries: 31 (Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 12, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
oil/gas terminal(s): Omisalj
Military
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,016,234
females age 16-49: 1,017,355 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 770,710
females age 16-49: 839,732 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 28,334
female: 27,015 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.7% of GDP (2012)
1.77% of GDP (2011)
1.7% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,886 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: