Egypt( Africa )


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Background:
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure. Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), and massive anti-government demonstrations, the Egyptian Armed Forces (EAF) intervened and removed MORSI from power in mid-July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In mid-January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum. Presidential elections to replace MANSOUR are scheduled for late May 2014. According to the constitution and the government's transitional road map, preparations for parliamentary elections will begin by mid-July 2014.
Geography
Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates:
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area comparative:
more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
<a href="https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/ref_maps/pdf/../../areacomparison/EG_area%202014.jpg">Area comparison map</a>
Land boundaries:
total: 2,612 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
Coastline:
2,450 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land use:
arable land: 2.87%
permanent crops: 0.79%
other: 96.34% (2011)
Irrigated land:
34,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
57.3 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)
per capita: 973.3 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Environment current issues:
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups:
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
Languages:
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2012 est.)
Population:
86,895,099 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.1% (male 14,272,494/female 13,639,550)
15-24 years: 17.8% (male 7,913,351/female 7,536,925)
25-54 years: 38.4% (male 16,942,145/female 16,398,524)
55-64 years: 6.7% (male 2,888,193/female 2,973,531)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 1,949,145/female 2,381,241) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 58.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 49.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 9.3 %
potential support ratio: 10.8 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 25.1 years
male: 24.7 years
female: 25.4 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.84% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
23.35 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
4.77 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 43.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
CAIRO (capital) 11.169 million; Alexandria 4.494 million (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 22.41 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
66 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.45 years
male: 70.82 years
female: 76.2 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.87 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
60.3% (2008)
Health expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 98.8% of population
total: 99.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 1.2% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 94.4% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 5.6% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
6,500 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
300 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
33.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
6.8% (2008)
Education expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2008)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.9%
male: 81.7%
female: 65.8% (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 1,066,526
percentage: 7 % (2005 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 24.8%
male: 14.7%
female: 54.1% (2010)
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Independence:
28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National holiday:
National Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution:
several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referenfum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014 (2014)
Legal system:
mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Abdel Fattah al-SISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB (since 1 March 2014)
cabinet: interim cabinet sworn in 1 March 2014
elections: last presidential election held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018)
election results: percent of vote - Abdel Fattah al-SISI 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI 3.4%
Legislative branch:
note: the previous bicameral legislature was dissolved in July 2013 and under the 2014 constitution was changed to the unicameral House of Representatives (minimum of 450 seats with up to 5 percent appointed by the president; members to serve 5-year terms); the process for elected members as stated in Article 102 of the 2014 constitution may be majoritarian, proportional list, or a mixed system; the previous bicameral parliament consisted of the Shura Council (at least 150 seats with up to one-tenth of body appointed by the president to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives(at least 350 seats); members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections (for new House of Representatives): unscheduled but expected in mid- to late-2014
election results (for previous legislature): Advisory Council (held 29 January and 14 February 2012) - percent of vote by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 45%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 28.6%, New Wafd Party 8.5%, Egyptian Bloc 5.4%, other 12.5%; seats by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 105, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 45, New Wafd Party 14, Egyptian Bloc 8, other 4, independents 4, presidential appointees 90; People's Assembly (held in three stages 28 November 2011 to 11 January 2012) - percent of vote by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 37.5%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 27.8%, New Wafd Party 9.2%, Egyptian Bloc 8.9%, Al-Wasat Party 3.7%, The Revolution Continues Alliance 2.8%, Reform and Development Party 2.2%, National Party of Egypt 1.6%, Freedom Party 1.9%, Egyptian Citizen Party 0.9%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Democratic Alliance of Egypt 235, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 123, New Wafd Party 38, Egyptian Bloc 35, Al-Wasat 10, Reform and Development Party 9, The Revolution Continues Alliance 8, National Party of Egypt 5, Egyptian Citizen Party 4, Freedom Party 4, independents 21, other 6, SCAF appointees 10
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); Supreme Administrative Court - the highest court of the State Council (consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; tenure NA
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
Political parties and leaders:
Al-Asala [Ehab SHIHA]
Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
Al-Wasat Party [Abou Elela MADY]
Al-Watan [Imad Abd al-GHAFUR]
Building and Development Party or BDP [Nasr Abdul-SALAM]
Dustour (Constitution) Party [Hala SHUKRALLAH]
Egyptian Current Party
Egypt of Freedom Party [Amr HAMZAWY]
El Tagamu'u Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Freedom and Justice Party [Muhammad Saad al-KATATNI]
Free Egyptians Party [Ahmad SAID]
New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADADWI]
Reform and Development Party [Muhammad Anwar al-SADAT]
Strong Egypt Party [Abdel Aboul FOTOUH]
The Conference Party [Ambassador Mohamed ORABI]
The Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mohamed Aboul GHAR]
The Popular Current Party [Hamdeen SABAHI]
The Popular Socialist Alliance Party [Abdel Ghafar SHOUKR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed M. TAWFIK (since 7 September 2012)
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marc J. SIEVERS (since 21 January 2014)
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
National symbol(s):
golden eagle
National anthem:
name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
Economy
Economy overview:
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions combined with limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent. After unrest erupted in January 2011, the Egyptian Government backtracked on economic reforms, drastically increasing social spending to address public dissatisfaction, but political uncertainty at the same time caused economic growth to slow significantly, reducing the government's revenues. Tourism, manufacturing, and construction were among the hardest hit sectors of the Egyptian economy, pushing up unemployment levels, and economic growth remains slow amid political uncertainty, government transitions, unrest, and cycles of violence. Cairo since 2011 has drawn down foreign exchange reserves and depended on foreign assistance, particularly from Gulf countries, to finance imports and energy products and prevent further devaluation of the Egyptian pound, fearing higher inflation from a weaker currency.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$551.4 billion (2013 est.)
$541.5 billion (2012 est.)
$529.7 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$262 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
1.8% (2013 est.)
2.2% (2012 est.)
1.8% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$6,600 (2013 est.)
$6,600 (2012 est.)
$6,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
12.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
13.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
13.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 78.6%
government consumption: 11.8%
investment in fixed capital: 14.3%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 18%
imports of goods and services: -23.2%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14.5%
industry: 37.5%
services: 48% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industries:
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate:
1.4% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
27.69 million (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 29%
industry: 24%
services: 47% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13.4% (2013 est.)
12.7% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line:
22% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
30.8 (2008)
32.1 (2005)
Budget:
revenues: $45.57 billion
expenditures: $80.42 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
17.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
92.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
88% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (2013 est.)
7.1% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
8.75% (5 December 2013 est.)
8.68% (31 December 2010 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11% (31 December 2013 est.)
12% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$47.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$45.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$191.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$183.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$163.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$192.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$63.49 billion (23 January 2014 est.)
$58.01 billion (31 December 2012)
$48.68 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Current account balance:
-$6.035 billion (2013 est.)
-$9.136 billion (2012 est.)
Exports:
$24.81 billion (2013 est.)
$24.93 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports partners:
Italy 7.9%, India 6.9%, US 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.2%, Turkey 5.3%, Libya 4.9% (2012)
Imports:
$59.22 billion (2013 est.)
$60.26 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports partners:
China 9.5%, US 7.6%, Germany 6.7%, Russia 5.3%, Ukraine 5.3%, Turkey 5.1%, Italy 5% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$17.03 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$48.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$38.69 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$76.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$75.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$6.475 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$6.285 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
6.91 (2013 est.)
6.0608 (2012 est.)
5.6219 (2010 est.)
5.545 (2009)
5.4 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
138.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity consumption:
122.4 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
1.595 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity imports:
156 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
26.91 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
87.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
10.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
720,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
85,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
48,740 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
602,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
816,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
90,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
164,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
61.26 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
46.17 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
10.51 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
201.7 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
96.8 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2011 there were multiple mobile-cellular networks with a total of roughly 83 million subscribers
international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
8.557 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)
Internet country code:
.eg
Internet users:
20.136 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
200,430 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
83 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports:
7 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 5,083 km
standard gauge: 5,083 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2009)
Roadways:
total: 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 67
by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil/gas terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said(East) (2,617,043), Port Said(West) (1,138,753)
Military
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Egyptian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya il-Misriya), Egyptian Air Defense Command (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 21,012,199
females age 16-49: 20,145,021 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 18,060,543
females age 16-49: 17,244,838 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 783,405
female: 748,647 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.72% of GDP (2012)
1.86% of GDP (2011)
1.72% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 70,026 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 12,927 (Sudan); 6,316 (Somalia); 5,506 (Iraq) (2013); 137,916 (Syria) (2014)
stateless persons: 60 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: