Federated States of Micronesia( Australia-Oceania )


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Background:
The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean; they became part of a UN Trust Territory under US administration following World War II. The eastern four island groups adopted a constitution in 1979 and chose to become the Federated States of Micronesia. (The fifth, westernmost island group became Palau.) Independence came in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association with the US, which was amended and renewed in 2004. Present concerns include large-scale unemployment, overfishing, and overdependence on US aid.
Geography
Location:
Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
6 55 N, 158 15 E
Area:
total: 702 sq km
land: 702 sq km
water: 0 sq km (fresh water only)
note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Chuuk (Truk) Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae (Kosaie)
Area comparative:
four times the size of Washington, DC (land area only)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
6,112 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage
Terrain:
islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Dolohmwar (Totolom) 791 m
Natural resources:
timber, marine products, deep-seabed minerals, phosphate
Land use:
arable land: 2.86%
permanent crops: 24.29%
other: 72.86% (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
typhoons (June to December)
Environment current issues:
overfishing, climate change, pollution
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
four major island groups totaling 607 islands
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Micronesian(s)
adjective: Micronesian; Chuukese, Kosraen(s), Pohnpeian(s), Yapese
Ethnic groups:
Chuukese/Mortlockese 49.3%, Pohnpeian 29.8%, Kosraean 6.3%, Yapese 5.7%, Yap outer islanders 5.1%, Polynesian 1.6%, Asian 1.4%, other 0.8% (2010 est.)
Languages:
English (official and common language), Chuukese, Kosrean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Religions:
Roman Catholic 54.7%, Protestant 41.1% (includes Congregational 38.5%, Baptist 1.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 0.8%, Assembly of God .7%), Mormon 1.5%, other 1.9%, none 0.7%, unspecified 0.1% (2010 est.)
Population:
105,681 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.9% (male 17,120/female 16,561)
15-24 years: 20.2% (male 10,755/female 10,609)
25-54 years: 38% (male 19,483/female 20,686)
55-64 years: 6.5% (male 3,440/female 3,477)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 1,576/female 1,974) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 63.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 56.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9 %
potential support ratio: 14.6 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 23.8 years
male: 23.2 years
female: 24.4 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.42% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
20.97 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
4.25 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-20.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 22.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
PALIKIR (capital) 7,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 21.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.28 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.35 years
male: 70.34 years
female: 74.45 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.55 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
13.4% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.18 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
3.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 87.4% of population
total: 89% of population
unimproved: urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 12.6% of population
total: 11% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 85.1% of population
rural: 49% of population
total: 57.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 14.9% of population
rural: 51% of population
total: 42.8% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
40.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
NA
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 91%
female: 88% (1980 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Federated States of Micronesia
local short form: none
former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts
abbreviation: FSM
Government type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force on 3 November 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004
Capital:
name: Palikir
geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 09 E
time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 states; Chuuk (Truk), Kosrae (Kosaie), Pohnpei (Ponape), Yap
Independence:
3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 10 May (1979)
Constitution:
drafted June 1975, ratified 1 October 1978, entered into force 10 May 1979; amended 1990 (2012)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of common and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emanuel MORI (since 11 May 2007); Vice President Alik L. ALIK (since 11 May 2007); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Emanuel MORI (since 11 May 2007); Vice President Alik L. ALIK (since 11 May 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet includes the vice president and the heads of the eight executive departments
elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators at large for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2015)
election results: Emanuel MORI re-elected president by Congress unopposed; Alik L. ALIK reelected vice president
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress (14 seats; 4 - one elected from each state to serve four-year terms and 10 - elected from single-member districts delineated by population to serve two-year terms; members elected by popular vote)
elections: last held on 5 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2015)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 14
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and not more than 5 associate justices and organized into appellate and criminal divisions)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the Federated States of Micronesia with the approval of two-thirds of Congress; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts: the highest state-level courts are: Chuuk Supreme Court; Korsae State Court; Pohnpei State Court; Yap State Court
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Asterio R. TAKESY (since 13 January 2012)
chancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383
FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391
consulate(s) general: Honolulu, Tamuning (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dorothea-Maria (Doria) ROSEN (since 9 August 2012)
embassy: 101 Upper Pics Road, Kolonia
mailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Kolonia, Pohnpei, 96941; U.S. Embassy in Micronesia, 4120 Kolonia Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-4120
telephone: [691] 320-2187
FAX: [691] 320-2186
Flag description:
light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern; blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean, the stars represent the four island groups of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
name: "Patriots of Micronesia"
lyrics/music: unknown
note: adopted 1991; the anthem is also known as "Across All Micronesia;" the music is based on the 1820 German patriotic song "Ich hab mich ergeben," which was the West German national anthem from 1949-1950; variants of this tune are used in Johannes Brahms' "Festival Overture" and Gustav Mahler's "Third Symphony"
Economy
Economy overview:
Economic activity consists of subsistence farming and fishing and government which is funded largely by Compact of Free Association (Compact) assistance provided by the US. The islands have few known mineral deposits worth commercial exploration. The potential for tourism is also limited by isolation, lack of adequate facilities, and limited air and water connections hinder development. Under the terms of the original Compact, the US provided $1.3 billion in grants and aid in 1986-2001. The US and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) negotiated a second (amended) Compact agreement in 2002-2003 that took effect in 2004. The amended Compact runs for a 20-year period to 2024; during which the US will provide roughly $2.1 billion to the FSM. The amended Compact also includes a Trust Fund for the people of the FSM which is to provide an income stream beyond 2024 when Compact grants are to end. The country's medium-term economic outlook appears fragile because of reduced US assistance and lackluster performance of its small and stagnant private sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$754 million (2013 est.)
$749.1 million (2012 est.)
$746.8 million (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars; GDP supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million annually
GDP (official exchange rate):
$339 million (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
0.6% (2013 est.)
2.1% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$7,300 (2013 est.)
$7,200 (2012 est.)
$7,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 12%
services: 74% (2011 est.)
Agriculture products:
black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables, coconuts, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sakau (kava), Kosraen citrus, betel nuts, sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens; fish
Industries:
tourism, construction; fish processing, specialized aquaculture; craft items (from shell, wood, and pearls)
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Labor force:
15,920 (2011)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 20.6%
services: 78.5%
note: two-thirds of the labor force are government employees (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
22% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
26.7% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $107 million
expenditures: $102 million (FY10/11 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
31.6% of GDP (FY10/11 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (2011 est.)
3.5% (2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
14.35% (31 December 2013 est.)
14.35% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$27.22 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$27.22 million
Stock of broad money:
$118.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$113.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$-56.77 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$56.77 million
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
-$34.3 million (FY05 est.)
Exports:
$24.9 million (2009 est.)
$14 million (2004 est.)
Exports commodities:
fish, garments, bananas, black pepper, sakau (kava), betel nuts
Exports partners:
Imports:
$132.7 million (2004)
Imports commodities:
food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, beverages
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$75.06 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$75.06 million
Debt external:
$60.8 million (FY05 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
the US dollar is used
Energy
Electricity production:
192 million kWh (2002)
Electricity consumption:
178.6 million kWh (2002)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
Electricity from fossil fuels:
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
Electricity from other renewable sources:
Crude oil production:
Crude oil exports:
Crude oil imports:
Crude oil proved reserves:
Refined petroleum products production:
Refined petroleum products consumption:
Refined petroleum products exports:
Refined petroleum products imports:
Natural gas production:
Natural gas consumption:
Natural gas exports:
Natural gas imports:
Natural gas proved reserves:
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
27,600 (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate system
domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; mobile-cellular service available on Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap
international: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2002)
Telephones main lines in use:
8,400 (2012)
Broadcast media:
no TV broadcast stations; each state has a multi-channel cable service with TV transmissions carrying roughly 95% imported programming and 5% local programming; about a half dozen radio stations (2009)
Internet country code:
.fm
Internet users:
17,000 (2009)
Internet hosts:
4,668 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
6 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 240 km
paved: 42 km
unpaved: 198 km (2000)
Merchant marine:
total: 3
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2 (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Colonia (Tomil Harbor), Lele Harbor, Pohnepi Harbor
Military
Military branches:
no regular military forces (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 26,712 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 22,008
females age 16-49: 23,501 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,276
female: 1,253 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Micronesia is a source, and to a limited extent, destination country for women subjected to sex trafficking; Micronesian women are fraudulently recruited for jobs in the US and its territories only to be forced into prostitution or labor upon arrival; Micronesian and foreign women and children are also reportedly prostituted on fishing vessels in Micronesia or its territorial waters, as well as restaurants and clubs frequented by fishermen; complaints of nonpayment and inhuman treatment on fishing boats has led to investigations of labor trafficking
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Micronesia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; despite passage of implementing regulations for Micronesia's 2012 trafficking law, the government has not reported any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions for sex or labor trafficking; the government also makes no efforts to identify trafficking victims and refer them to protective services; no NGOs provide services to victims; limited efforts are made to increase the public's awareness of human trafficking (2013)