Gibraltar( Europe )

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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Geographic coordinates:
36 08 N, 5 21 W
total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
Land boundaries:
total: 1 km
border countries: Spain 1 km
12 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
Natural resources:
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2011)
Irrigated land:
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
Environment current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
People and Society
noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
Ethnic groups:
Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)
29,185 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.1% (male 3,009/female 2,862)
15-24 years: 16% (male 2,433/female 2,225)
25-54 years: 38.1% (male 5,593/female 5,524)
55-64 years: 10.8% (male 1,488/female 1,664)
65 years and over: 14.6% (male 2,156/female 2,231) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
total: 34 years
male: 33.1 years
female: 35 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.25% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
14.15 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
8.33 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.13 years
male: 76.28 years
female: 82.18 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.92 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
Sanitation facility access:
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
HIV or AIDS deaths:
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA
female: NA
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
Government type:
name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007; amended 2009 (2009)
Legal system:
the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
International law organization participation:
18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir James DUTTON (since 6 December 2013)
head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 December 2011 (next to be held not later than 8 December 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 48%, GSLP 46.8%, Progressive Democratic Party 4.4%, other 0.8%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 7
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least three judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges)
note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years
subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment
Political parties and leaders:
Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]
Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM]
Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Chamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association
International organization participation:
ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description:
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean
National symbol(s):
Barbary macaque
National anthem:
name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)
Economy overview:
Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.275 billion (2008 est.)
$1.203 billion (2007 est.)
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
6% (2008 est.)
8.8% (2007 est.)
0% (2006 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$43,000 (2008 est.)
$41,200 (2007 est.)
$38,400 (2006 est.)
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0%
industry: 0%
services: 100% (2008 est.)
Agriculture products:
tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:
Labor force:
12,690 (2001) (2001)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: negligible
industry: 40%
services: 60% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
3% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
revenues: $475.8 million
expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
43% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
13.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (2008)
2.6% (2006)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of narrow money:
Stock of broad money:
Stock of domestic credit:
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
$271 million (2004 est.)
Exports commodities:
(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods
Exports partners:
$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
Imports commodities:
fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
0.6307 (2014)
0.6391 (2013)
0.6472 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)
Electricity production:
166.4 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
154.7 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
43,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
24,920 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
28,380 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.905 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
34,750 (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones main lines in use:
23,100 (2012)
Broadcast media:
Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
20,200 (2009)
Internet hosts:
3,509 (2012)
1 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 29 km
paved: 29 km (2007)
Merchant marine:
total: 267
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)
registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Gibraltar
Military branches:
Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 7,037 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,017
females age 16-49: 5,706 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 228
female: 220 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: