Guam( Australia-Oceania )


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Background:
Spain ceded Guam to the US in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941, it was retaken by the US three years later. The military installations on the island are some of the most strategically important US bases in the Pacific.
Geography
Location:
Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines
Geographic coordinates:
13 28 N, 144 47 E
Area:
total: 544 sq km
land: 544 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
three times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
125.5 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low hills in center, mountains in south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Lamlam 406 m
Natural resources:
aquatic wildlife (supporting tourism), fishing (largely undeveloped)
Land use:
arable land: 1.85%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 81.48% (2011)
Irrigated land:
2 sq km (2011)
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively rare but potentially destructive typhoons (June to December)
Environment current issues:
extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake, an exotic, invasive species
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Guamanian(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Guamanian
Ethnic groups:
Chamorro 37.3%, Filipino 26.3%, white 7.1%, Chuukese 7%, Korean 2.2%, other Pacific Islander 2%, other Asian 2%, Chinese 1.6%, Palauan 1.6%, Japanese 1.5%, Pohnpeian 1.4%, mixed 9.4%, other 0.6% (2010 est.)
Languages:
English 43.6%, Filipino 21.2%, Chamorro 17.8%, other Pacific island languages 10%, Asian languages 6.3%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, other 15% (1999 est.)
Population:
161,001 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 21,520/female 20,279)
15-24 years: 16.9% (male 14,109/female 13,164)
25-54 years: 39.3% (male 32,285/female 31,058)
55-64 years: 9.3% (male 7,483/female 7,411)
65 years and over: 8.2% (male 6,228/female 7,464) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 52.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 39.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.8 %
potential support ratio: 7.8 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 29.9 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 30.4 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.44% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
17.01 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
5.04 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 93.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.23% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
HAGATNA (capital) 169,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.51 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.91 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.82 years
male: 75.78 years
female: 82.05 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.38 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
66.6%
note: percent of women aged 18-44 (2002)
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 99.5% of population
total: 99.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 0.5% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 89.8% of population
total: 89.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 10.2% of population
total: 10.2% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1990 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 29.4%
male: 29.7%
female: 28.9% (2011)
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Guam
conventional short form: Guam
local long form: Guahan
local short form: Guahan
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: Hagatna (Agana)
geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 144 44 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
National holiday:
Discovery Day, first Monday in March (1521)
Constitution:
effective 1 July 1950; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
Legal system:
common law modeled on US system; US federal laws apply
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; note - Guamanians are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
head of government: Governor Eddie CALVO (since 3 January 2011); Lieutenant Governor Ray TENORIO (since 3 January 2011)
cabinet: heads of executive departments; appointed by the governor with the consent of the Guam legislature
elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Guam, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (can serve two consecutive terms, then must wait a full term before running again); election last held on 2 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2014)
election results: Eddie CALVO elected governor with 50.6% percent of vote against 49.4% for Carl GUTIERREZ; Ray TENORIO elected lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislature (15 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 9, Republican Party 6
note: Guam elects one nonvoting delegate to the US House of Representatives; election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Guam (consists of 3 justices)
note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court of Guam are heard by the US Supreme Court
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Guam legislature; justices appointed for life subject to retention election every 10 years
subordinate courts: Superior Court of Guam - includes several divisions; US Federal District Court for the District of Guam (a US territorial court; appeals beyond this court are heard before the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Carlo BRANCH]
Republican Party [Mike BENITO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Guam Commission on Decolonization
Guam Federation of Teachers' Union
Guam Waterworks Authority Workers
We Are Guahan
International organization participation:
IOC, PIF (observer), SPC, UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of the US)
Flag description:
territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach scene, a proa or outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; the proa is sailing in Agana Bay with the promontory of Punta Dos Amantes, near the capital, in the background; blue represents the sea and red the blood shed in the struggle against oppression
note: the US flag is the national flag
National symbol(s):
coconut tree
National anthem:
name: "Fanohge Chamoru" (Stand Ye Guamanians)
lyrics/music: Ramon Manalisay SABLAN [English], Lagrimas UNTALAN [Chamoru]/Ramon Manalisay SABLAN
note: adopted 1919; the local anthem is also known as "Guam Hymn"; as a territory of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner," which generally follows the playing of "Stand Ye Guamanians," is official (see United States)
Economy
Economy overview:
The economy depends largely on US national defense spending, tourism, other services. Total US grants, wages and salaries, and procurement outlays amounted to approximately $1.6 billion in 2010. Over the past 30 years, tourism has grown to become the largest income source following national defense.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.6 billion (2010 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.6 billion (2010 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
1.3% (2002-10 average est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$28,700 (2010 est.)
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Agriculture products:
fruits, copra, vegetables; eggs, pork, poultry, beef
Industries:
national defense, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Labor force:
69,390
note: this number is for the civilian labor force only (2010 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 0.3%
industry: (2004 est.)
services: NA% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.2% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line:
23% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $942.6 million
expenditures: $1.082 billion (FY10/11 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
20.5% of GDP (FY10/11 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of narrow money:
Stock of broad money:
Stock of domestic credit:
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
Exports:
$44 million (2011 est.)
Exports commodities:
transshipments of refined petroleum products, construction materials, fish, food and beverage products
Exports partners:
Imports:
$901 million (2011 est.)
Imports commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
the US dollar is used
Energy
Electricity production:
1.734 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity consumption:
1.635 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
552,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
14,490 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
6,579 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.103 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
98,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers
domestic: digital system, including mobile-cellular service and local access to the Internet
international: country code - 1-671; major landing point for submarine cables between Asia and the US (Guam is a transpacific communications hub for major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
67,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
about a dozen TV channels, including digital channels; multi-channel cable TV services are available; roughly 20 radio stations (2009)
Internet country code:
.gu
Internet users:
90,000 (2009)
Internet hosts:
23 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
5 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 1,045 km (2008)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Apra Harbor
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 38,358
females age 16-49: 36,869 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,701
female: 1,608 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: