Jersey( Europe )


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Background:
Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Jersey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK or of the European Union. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.
Geography
Location:
Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France
Geographic coordinates:
49 15 N, 2 10 W
Area:
total: 116 sq km
land: 116 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
70 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Climate:
temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain:
gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 143 m
Natural resources:
arable land
Land use:
arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
other: NA
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
NA
Environment current issues:
NA
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander
Ethnic groups:
Jersey 46.4%, British 32.7%, Portuguese/Madeiran 8.2%, Polish 3.3%, Irish, French, and other white 7.1%, other 2.4% (2011 est.)
Languages:
English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)
Religions:
Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic
Population:
96,513 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 8,001/female 7,456)
15-24 years: 14.8% (male 7,271/female 6,972)
25-54 years: 41.4% (male 20,000/female 19,927)
55-64 years: 12.2% (male 5,690/female 6,055)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 6,464/female 8,677) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 46.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 24.7 %
potential support ratio: 4
note: data represents the Channel Islands (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.5 years
male: 37.1 years
female: 41.6 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.81% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
11.65 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
4.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 31.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.63% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.66 years
male: 79.22 years
female: 84.26 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.66 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
Sanitation facility access:
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
NA
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form: Jersey
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
name: Saint Helier
geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes; Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice (2013)
Legal system:
the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply; local statutes
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir John MCCOLL (since 26 September 2011)
head of government: Chief Minister Ian GORST (18 December 2011); Bailiff Michael BIRT (since 9 July 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet (since December 2005)
elections: ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (58 seats; 53 are voting members, of which 12 are senators elected for six-year terms, 12 are constables or heads of parishes elected for three-year terms, 29 are deputies elected for three-year terms; the 5 non-voting members include the bailiff and the deputy bailiff, the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General appointed by the monarch)
elections: last held on 27 April 2011 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 53; note - starting with the 2014 elections, the number of Senators will be reduced to 8
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges and organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Civil and Criminal Divisions); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners - part-time judges, and NA lay people referred to as jurats)
judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for extent of good behavior; Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for extent of good behavior; jurats appointed until retirement at age 72
subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquires (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)
Political parties and leaders:
one declared parties: Jersey Democratic Alliance
note: all senators and deputies elected in 2008 were independents
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Institute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)
Jersey Hospitality Association [Robert JONES] (trade association)
Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights)
La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)
Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights)
Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)
Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (British crown dependency)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag description:
white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added
National symbol(s):
Jersey cow
National anthem:
name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)
lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE
note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Economy
Economy overview:
Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2010 the financial services sector accounted for about 50% of the island's output. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. Tourism accounts for one-quarter of GDP. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey with the result that an electronics industry has developed, displacing more traditional industries. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven. In January 2013, Jersey signed a tax agreement with Guernsey and the Isle of Man, in order to enable the islands' authorities to end tax avoidance and evasion. Living standards come close to those of the UK.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$5.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$5.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
NA%
GDP per capita (PPP):
$57,000 (2005 est.)
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 2%
services: 96% (2010)
Agriculture products:
potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Labor force:
53,380 (June 2012)
Labor force by occupation:
Unemployment rate:
1.7% (2012 est.)
2.2% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $829 million
expenditures: $851 million (2005)
Taxes and other revenues:
16.3% of GDP (2005)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2006)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of narrow money:
Stock of broad money:
Stock of domestic credit:
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
Exports:
$NA
Exports commodities:
light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles, flowers
Exports partners:
Imports:
$NA
Imports commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar
0.6307 (2014)
0.6391 (2013)
0.6472 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
Electricity consumption:
630.1 million kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity exports:
Electricity imports:
Electricity installed generating capacity:
Electricity from fossil fuels:
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
Electricity from other renewable sources:
Crude oil production:
Crude oil exports:
Crude oil imports:
Crude oil proved reserves:
Refined petroleum products production:
Refined petroleum products consumption:
Refined petroleum products exports:
Refined petroleum products imports:
Natural gas production:
Natural gas consumption:
Natural gas exports:
Natural gas imports:
Natural gas proved reserves:
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
108,000 (2010)
Telephone system:
general assessment: increasingly modern system, with broadband access
domestic: digital telephone system launch announced in 2006 now implemented; fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined fixed and mobile-cellular density exceeds 100 per 100 persons
international: country code - 44; submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2010)
Telephones main lines in use:
73,800 (2010)
Broadcast media:
multiple UK terrestrial television broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating (2009)
Internet country code:
.je
Internet users:
29,500 (2009)
Internet hosts:
264 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
1 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 576 km (2010)
Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 14 (Gibraltar 1, India 2, Marshall Islands 11) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 18,688
females age 16-49: 18,615 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 664
female: 590 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: