Montenegro( Europe )

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The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 19 18 E
total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km
293.5 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:
arable land: 12.45%
permanent crops: 1.16%
other: 86.39% (2011)
Irrigated land:
24.12 sq km (2010)
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
People and Society
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Roma 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
650,036 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 48,231/female 50,659)
15-24 years: 10.8% (male 33,085/female 37,029)
25-54 years: 47.1% (male 164,644/female 141,380)
55-64 years: 12.9% (male 41,765/female 42,075)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 36,081/female 55,087) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 46.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 27.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 19.7 %
potential support ratio: 5.1 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.2 years
male: 38.2 years
female: 40.5 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.49% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
10.59 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
urban population: 63.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
PODGORICA (capital) 156,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Maternal mortality rate:
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
Total fertility rate:
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
39.4% (2005/06)
Health expenditures:
9.3% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
2.03 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 95.3% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 4.7% of population
total: 2% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 91.9% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.1% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 10% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
HIV or AIDS deaths:
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
22.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.2% (2006)
Education expenditures:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.4%
female: 97.6% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2010)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 8,520
percentage: 10 % (2005 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 41.1%
male: 42.3%
female: 39.7% (2012)
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
Government type:
name: Podgorica; note - the Old Royal Capital is Cetinje mentioned in the constitution
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday:
National Day, 13 July (1878)
several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007; note - in early 2013, Montenegro's parliamentary constitutional committee began debate on proposed amendments (2013)
Legal system:
civil law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 4 December 2012)
cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC re-elected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC 48.8%%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 October 2012 (next to be held by 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Coalition for European Montenegro 45.6%, Democratic Front 22.8%, SNP 11.1%, Positive Montenegro 8.2%, Bosniak Party, 4.2%, other (including Albanian and Croatian minority parties) 8.1%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 39, Democratic Front 20, SNP 9, Positive Montenegro 7, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges)
judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court proposed jointly by the president of Montenegro, the speaker of the Assembly, and the prime minister; other judges elected by the Judicial Council; court president term is 5 years; term of other judges is 9 years; Constitutional Court judges proposed by the president of Montenegro and elected by the Assembly; court president elected among its members; term of judges is 9 years; court president term is 3 years
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Court of Appeal; regional and first instance courts
Political parties and leaders:
Albanian Coalition (includes Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmed BARDHI], Democratic Party [Fatmir DJEKA], and Albanian Alternative or AA [Djerdj DAMAJ])
Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOCVIC], and the Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC])
Coalition FORCA for Unity (includes FORCA [Nazif CUNGU] and Civic Initiative [Vaselj Sinistaj])
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC]
Democratic Front (bloc) [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC] and Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC], a splinter faction of the Socialist People's Party or SNP)
Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
Just Montenegro [Rade BOJOVIC]
Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC]
Serbian National Alliance (bloc)(includes Party of Serb Radicals or SSR, Democratic Serb Party or DSS [Ranko KADIC], and the Serbian National Council)
Serbian Unity (bloc) (includes Serbian People's Party or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], the Serb List or SL, the Serbian Homeland Party, the Serbian Radical Party, and the Democratic Centre of Boka or DCB [Dejan COROVIC])
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdan MILIC]
Together (bloc) (includes Pensioners' Party [Vojo VULETIC], Disabled and Social Justice, and the Yugoslav Communist Party of Montenegro or JKPCG)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC (since 30 November 2010)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sue K. BROWN (since 27 April 2011)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
Flag description:
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
National symbol(s):
double-headed eagle
National anthem:
name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
note: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song
Economy overview:
Montenegro's economy is slowly transitioning to a market system, but the state sector remains large and additional institutional changes are needed. The economy relies heavily on foreign tourism and the export of refined metals. Unprofitable state-owned enterprises, especially the Podgorica Aluminum Kombine, the country’s largest exporter, weigh heavily on public finances. During the MILOSEVIC era, Montenegro severed its economy from Serbia, maintained its own central bank, adopted the Deutsche Mark, then shifted to the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The 2006 dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro led to separate memberships in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro became the 156th member of World Trade Organization in December 2011. The European Council (EC) granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Unemployment and disparities in regional development, especially in the north, remain key political and economic problems. The global financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to a credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports. The Government of Montenegro increased value added tax (VAT) from 17% in 2012 to 19% in 2013 and raised income tax rates from 9% to 15% for those earning over €480 a month. In 2013, the government also retrenched by freezing pensions and limiting salary increases for public enterprises and members of the parliament.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$7.429 billion (2013 est.)
$7.318 billion (2012 est.)
$7.358 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.518 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
1.5% (2013 est.)
-0.5% (2012 est.)
3.2% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$11,900 (2013 est.)
$11,800 (2012 est.)
$11,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 40.2%
imports of goods and services: -66.2%
(2011 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.8%
industry: 11.3%
services: 87.9% (2011)
Agriculture products:
tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Labor force:
251,300 (2011 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 6.3%
industry: 20.9%
services: 72.8% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
19.1% (2012 est.)
11.5% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line:
6.6% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Distribution of family income Gini index:
24.3 (2010)
30 (2003)
revenues: $1.68 billion
expenditures: $1.58 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
37.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
52.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
45% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2012)
3% (2011)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.69% (31 December 2011 est.)
9.53% (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$3.29 billion (31 December 2009)
$3.771 billion (31 December 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.322 billion (31 December 2011)
$3.604 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Current account balance:
-$1.938 billion (2012 est.)
-$1.927 billion (2011 est.)
$489.2 million (2012 est.)
$640 million (2011 est.)
Exports commodities:
Exports partners:
Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
$2.4 billion (2012 est.)
$2.5 billion (2011 est.)
Imports commodities:
Imports partners:
Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$400 million (31 December 2011)
Debt external:
$1.7 billion (2012 est.)
$1.2 billion (2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)
Electricity production:
3.945 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
3.279 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
730 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity imports:
732 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
868,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
24.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
75.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
4,446 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
369 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
3,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
2.166 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
1.126 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
163,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
280,000 (2009)
Internet hosts:
10,088 (2012)
5 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
1 (2012)
total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2010)
total: 7,763 km
paved: 5,365 km
unpaved: 2,398 km (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 2
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Bar
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 149,159
females age 16-49: 131,823 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 3,120
female: 3,677 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.87% of GDP (2012)
1.95% of GDP (2011)
1.87% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 6,967 (Kosovo) (2013)
stateless persons: 3,383 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: