Morocco( Africa )

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In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Although Morocco is not the UN-recognized Administering Power for the Western Sahara, it exercises de facto administrative control over 80% of the territory. The UN since 1991 has monitored a ceasefire between Morocco and the Polisario Front and leads ongoing negotiations over the status of the territory. King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2012, the Justice and Development Party - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government.
Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Geographic coordinates:
32 00 N, 5 00 W
total: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total: 2,020.5 km
border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
1,835 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Land use:
arable land: 17.79%
permanent crops: 2.6%
other: 79.61% (2011)
Irrigated land:
14,850 sq km (2004)
Total renewable water resources:
29 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 12.61 cu km/yr (12%/4%/84%)
per capita: 428.1 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
Environment current issues:
land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography note:
strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
People and Society
noun: Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan
Ethnic groups:
Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%
Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i), Jewish about 6,000 (2010 est.)
32,987,206 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 26.7% (male 4,479,676/female 4,342,605)
15-24 years: 17.7% (male 2,899,041/female 2,931,856)
25-54 years: 42% (male 6,693,877/female 7,146,696)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 1,200,733/female 1,203,447)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 940,291/female 1,148,984) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 49.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 41.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5 %
potential support ratio: 13.4 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 28.1 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28.7 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.02% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
18.47 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
4.79 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 57% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
Casablanca 3.046 million; RABAT (capital) 1.843 million; Fes 1.088 million; Marrakech 939,000; Tangier 810,000; Agadir 805,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 24.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.51 years
male: 73.44 years
female: 79.74 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.15 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
67.4% (2011)
Health expenditures:
6% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 63.6% of population
total: 83.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 36.4% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 84.5% of population
rural: 63.1% of population
total: 75.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 15.5% of population
rural: 36.9% of population
total: 24.6% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
30,000 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
1,200 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
16.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.1% (2011)
Education expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2009)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.1%
male: 76.1%
female: 57.6% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2010)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 500,960
percentage: 8 % (2007 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 18.6%
male: 18.4%
female: 19.2% (2012)
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
name: Rabat
geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September
Administrative divisions:
15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate
note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, another region that falls entirely within Western Sahara
2 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday:
Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution (2011)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Supreme Court
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdelillah BENKIRANE (since 29 November 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister as well as Minister Delegates to each ministry appoined by the Palace
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the winning party following legislative elections
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Counselors or Majlis al-Mustacharin (270 seats - to be reduced to a maximum of 120; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members are elected every three years) and Chamber of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (395 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held on 3 October 2009 (next pending legislation by the 2011 constitution); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 25 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PJD 107, PI 60, RNI 52, PAM 47, USFP 39, MP 32, UC 23, PPS 18, other 17
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication)
Political parties and leaders:
Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
Al Ahd (The Covenant) Party [Najib EL OUAZZANI]
Alliance des Libert'es (Alliance of Liberties) or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]
An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]
Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Mustapha BAKKOURY, secretary general]
Choura et Istiqlal (Consultation and Independence) Party or PCI [Abdelwahed MAACH]
Citizens' Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]
Citizenship and Development Initiative or ICD [Mohamed BENHAMOU]
Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohammed ABIED]
Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]
Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Touhami EL KHIARI]
Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]
Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]
Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]
Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]
Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]
Labor Party or LP [Abdelkrim BENATIK]
Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]
National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]
National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]
National Rally of Independents or RNI [Salaheddine MEZOUAR]
National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]
Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]
Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]
Renaissance and Virtue Party or PRV [Mohamed KHALIDI]
Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]
Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]
Socialist Democratic Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]
Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
Unified Socialist Left Party or PGSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammed Rachad BOUHLAL (since 22 December 2011)
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979
FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Matthew LUSSENHOP (since July 2013)
embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat
mailing address: Unit 9400, Box 021, DPO AE 09718
telephone: [212] (537) 76 22 65
FAX: [212] (537) 76 56 61
consulate(s) general: Casablanca
Flag description:
red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912
National symbol(s):
pentacle symbol; lion
National anthem:
name: "Hymne Cherifien" (Hymn of the Sharif)
lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN
note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970
Economy overview:
Morocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to build a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. In the 1980s Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although a poor harvest and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown in 2012. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable 40% of electricity output by 2020. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the United States in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the European Union in 2008. Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. In 2011 and 2012, high prices on fuel - which is subsidized and almost entirely imported - strained the government's budget and widened the country's current account deficit. In the fall of 2013, Morocco capped some of its fuel subsidies in an effort to gradually reduce the country’s large budgetary deficit. Key economic challenges for Morocco include fighting corruption and reforming the education system, the judiciary, and the government's costly subsidy program.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$180 billion (2013 est.)
$171.2 billion (2012 est.)
$166.7 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$104.8 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
5.1% (2013 est.)
2.7% (2012 est.)
5% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$5,500 (2013 est.)
$5,300 (2012 est.)
$5,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
25.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
27.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 19.1%
investment in fixed capital: 30.8%
investment in inventories: 3.7%
exports of goods and services: 35.4%
imports of goods and services: -48.5%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 15.1%
industry: 31.7%
services: 53.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture products:
barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine
phosphate mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
1.2% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
11.73 million (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 44.6%
industry: 19.8%
services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.5% (2013 est.)
9% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line:
15% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
40.9 (2007 est.)
39.5 (1999 est.)
revenues: $26.07 billion
expenditures: $34.51 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
24.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
76.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
71.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2013 est.)
1.2% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
3.31% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
6.3% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$75.71 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$71.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$90.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$84.52 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$121 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$111.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2012 est.)
$60.09 billion (31 December 2011)
$69.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Current account balance:
-$9.595 billion (2013 est.)
-$9.843 billion (2012 est.)
$16.78 billion (2013 est.)
$16.99 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
clothing and textiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
Exports partners:
France 21%, Spain 17.3%, Brazil 5.4%, India 4.9%, US 4.6% (2012)
$38.66 billion (2013 est.)
$38.88 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
Imports partners:
Spain 13.1%, France 12.1%, China 6.9%, US 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.2%, Italy 5.1%, Russia 5%, Germany 4.9% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$19.16 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$17.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$36.51 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$32.15 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$51.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$48.18 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$1.972 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.423 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
8.439 (2013 est.)
8.6026 (2012 est.)
8.4172 (2010 est.)
8.0571 (2009)
7.526 (2008)
Electricity production:
21.13 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
23.61 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
3.94 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
6.62 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
69.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
19.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
4.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
5,057 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
122,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
680,000 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
131,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
203,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
20,830 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
143,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
60 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
560 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
150 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
43.71 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
39.016 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 100 per 100 persons
international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
3.28 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
13.213 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
277,338 (2012)
55 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
1 (2013)
gas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)
total: 2,067 km
standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2008)
total: 58,395 km
paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways)
unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 26
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)
registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier
container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,093,408)
Military branches:
Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 8,252,682
females age 16-49: 8,691,419 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 7,026,016
females age 16-49: 7,377,045 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 300,327
female: 298,366 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
3.55% of GDP (2012)
3.37% of GDP (2011)
3.55% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Morocco is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Moroccan adults and children are exploited for forced labor and forced prostitution in the Middle East and Europe; some Moroccan girls recruited to work as maids experience conditions of forced labor, while some Moroccan boys are forced to work as apprentices in the artisan and construction industries and in mechanic shops; women and children from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia who voluntarily enter Morocco are subsequently coerced into prostitution or, less frequently, domestic service; women and children from Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Nigeria are also vulnerable to sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, forced labor in Morocco
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Morocco does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government does not demonstrate progress in investigating, prosecuting, convicting, and adequately punishing trafficking offenders and has failed to provide law enforcement data; it has not developed or employed systematic procedures to proactively identify trafficking victims among vulnerable groups, particularly the sub-Saharan migrant community, but has made some efforts to offer protective services to Moroccan women and child trafficking victims; Morocco continues to lack a single comprehensive anti-trafficking law (2013)