Norway( Europe )

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Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates:
62 00 N, 10 00 E
total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total: 2,542 km
border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 2.52%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 97.46% (2011)
Irrigated land:
1,149 sq km (2007)
Total renewable water resources:
382 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 2.94 cu km/yr (28%/43%/29%)
per capita: 622.4 cu m/yr (2006)
Natural hazards:
rockslides, avalanches
volcanism: Beerenberg (elev. 2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
Environment current issues:
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
People and Society
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groups:
Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 estimate)
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities
Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 82.1%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.3%, Roman Catholic 1.8%, other 2.4%, unspecified 7.5% (2011 est.)
5,147,792 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.2% (male 480,176/female 456,128)
15-24 years: 13.1% (male 347,873/female 329,021)
25-54 years: 40.8% (male 1,080,339/female 1,021,370)
55-64 years: 11.7% (male 305,094/female 298,134)
65 years and over: 16.8% (male 375,909/female 453,748) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 53.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 28.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 24.7 %
potential support ratio: 4.1 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.1 years
male: 38.2 years
female: 39.9 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.19% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
12.09 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
8.19 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
7.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 79.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
OSLO (capital) 915,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 2.48 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.6 years
male: 79.63 years
female: 83.69 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.86 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
note: percent of women aged 20-44 (2005)
Health expenditures:
9.1% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
3.7 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density:
3.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
4,000 (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
21.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
6.9% of GDP (2010)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 8.6%
male: 10%
female: 7.2% (2012)
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
Legislative branch:
modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in September 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 30.8%, H 26.3%, FrP 16.3%, KrF 5.6%, Sp 5.5%, V 5.2%, SV 4.1%, MDG 2.8, other 2.7%; seats by party - Ap 55, H 48, FrP 29, Sp 10, KrF 10, V 9, SV 7, MDG 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
note - in addition to professionally trained judges, there are elected lay judges that sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts
Political parties and leaders:
Center Party or Sp [Liv Signe NAVARSETE]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Labor Party or Ap [Jens STOLTENBERG]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI-GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN]
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 22 August 2013)
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 469-3990
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Julie Furuta-Toy (since 27 September 2013)
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
Flag description:
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK
note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem
Economy overview:
The Norwegian economy is a prosperous mixed economy, with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, through extensive regulation and large-scale state-majority-owned enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on the petroleum sector, which accounts for the largest portion of export revenue and about 30% of government revenue. Norway is the world's third-largest natural gas exporter; and seventh largest oil exporter, making one of its largest offshore oil finds in 2011. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from the petroleum sector in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $830 billion in January 2014 and uses the fund's return to help finance public expenses. After solid GDP growth in 2004-07, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to positive growth in 2010-13. Nevertheless, the government budget remains in surplus.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$282.2 billion (2013 est.)
$277.8 billion (2012 est.)
$269.7 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$515.8 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
1.6% (2013 est.)
3% (2012 est.)
1.3% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$55,400 (2013 est.)
$55,100 (2012 est.)
$54,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
38.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
39.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
37% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 40.5%
government consumption: 21.6%
investment in fixed capital: 21.7%
investment in inventories: 3.4%
exports of goods and services: 39.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.1%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.2%
industry: 42.3%
services: 56.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
-3% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
2.707 million (2014 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 20.2%
services: 77.6% (2012)
Unemployment rate:
3.6% (2013 est.)
3.2% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 21% (2008)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
25 (2008)
25.8 (1995)
revenues: $292.8 billion
expenditures: $225 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
56.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
30.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
29.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (2013 est.)
0.7% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
6.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
1.75% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2013 est.)
3.7% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$146.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$152.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$312.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$318.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$706.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$705.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$252.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$219.2 billion (31 December 2011)
$250.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Current account balance:
$67.4 billion (2013 est.)
$71.87 billion (2012 est.)
$154.2 billion (2013 est.)
$166 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports partners:
UK 25.6%, Germany 12.6%, Netherlands 12%, France 6.7%, Sweden 6.3%, US 5% (2012)
$90.14 billion (2013 est.)
$89.05 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports partners:
Sweden 13.6%, Germany 12.4%, China 9.3%, Denmark 6.3%, UK 6.1%, US 5.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$51.86 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$49.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt external:
$720.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$595.7 billion (31 December 2011)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$274.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$256.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$264.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$241.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
5.802 (2013 est.)
5.8162 (2012 est.)
6.0442 (2010 est.)
6.288 (2009)
5.6361 (2008)
Electricity production:
125.2 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity consumption:
120.9 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
22.17 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
4.168 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
30.18 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
91.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
1.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
1.902 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
1.602 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
11,320 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
5.366 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
307,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
255,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
349,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
100,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
114.7 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
5.506 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
107.3 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
2.07 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
45.87 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
5.732 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
1.465 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned television stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally (2008)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
4.431 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
3.588 million (2012)
95 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
1 (2013)
condensate 578 km; condensate/gas 220 km; gas 8,044 km; oil 3,794 km; oil/gas/water 457 km; water 96 km (2013)
total: 4,237 km
standard gauge: 4,237 km 1.435-m gauge (2,784 km electrified) (2012)
total: 93,870 km (includes 393 km of expressways)
paved: 75,754 km
unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)
Merchant marine:
total: 585
by type: bulk carrier 55, cargo 105, carrier 5, chemical tanker 121, combination ore/oil 12, liquefied gas 47, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 49
foreign-owned: 81 (Bermuda 24, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, France 5, Iceland 2, Lithuania 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 27, US 10)
registered in other countries: 974 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Bahamas 186, Barbados 38, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 8, Croatia 2, Curacao 2, Cyprus 14, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 13, Gibraltar 46, Hong Kong 48, Indonesia 3, Isle of Man 30, Italy 6, Liberia 38, Libya 1, Malta 96, Marshall Islands 75, Netherlands 19, Panama 81, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Singapore 153, Spain 10, Sweden 3, UK 32, US 17, Vanuatu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
Military branches:
Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
19-35 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 1-year service obligation followed by 4-5 refresher training periods through ages 35-60, totalling 18 months (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,079,043
females age 16-49: 1,051,210 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 888,761
females age 16-49: 865,697 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 32,290
female: 30,777 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.4% of GDP (2012)
1.47% of GDP (2011)
1.4% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 9,275 (Somalia); 9,344 (Eritrea); 5,679 (Iraq); 5,523 (Afghanistan) (2013)
stateless persons: 2,313 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: