Peru( South America )

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Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W
total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
arable land: 2.84%
permanent crops: 0.66%
other: 96.5% (2011)
Irrigated land:
11,960 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
1,913 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 19.34 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
per capita: 727.6 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
Environment current issues:
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
People and Society
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
30,147,935 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.3% (male 4,184,330/female 4,040,096)
15-24 years: 19.2% (male 2,894,168/female 2,889,409)
25-54 years: 39.4% (male 5,715,542/female 6,161,540)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 1,071,688/female 1,125,100)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 979,854/female 1,086,208) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 53.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 43.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10 %
potential support ratio: 10 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 27 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 27.7 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.99% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
18.57 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
5.99 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 77.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.55% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
LIMA (capital) 9.13 million; Arequipa 804,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 20.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
67 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.23 years
male: 71.23 years
female: 75.33 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
68.9% (2011)
Health expenditures:
4.8% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 91.2% of population
rural: 71.6% of population
total: 86.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.8% of population
rural: 28.4% of population
total: 13.2% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 81.2% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 73.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 26.9% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
75,500 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
4,100 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
15.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
4.5% (2008)
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2012)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.6%
male: 94.9%
female: 84.6% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2010)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 9.5%
male: 9.4%
female: 9.7% (2011)
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
constitutional republic
name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
note: Prime Minister Rene CORNEJO (since 24 February 2014) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential election last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 48.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; note - as of 10 March 2014, the composition of the legislature is as follows: seats by bloc party - Gana Peru 43, Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) 36, PP 10, Accion Popular-Frente Amplio 10, National Solidarity 9, Union Regional 8, Partido Popular Cristiano-Alianza Para el Progreso 7, Concertacion Parlamentaria 6, Independent 1; note - defections by members of the National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in the formation of new blocs and frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various blocs
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years; justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; two types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Nadine HEREDIA Alarcon]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Wide Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Winston FORSYTH Mejia (since 29 August 2011)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael J. Fitzpatrick (since 20 September 2013)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
National symbol(s):
vicuna (a camelid related to the llama)
National anthem:
name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national contest for an anthem
Economy overview:
Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and third largest producer of copper. The Peruvian economy has been growing by an average of 5.6% for the past five years with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1 to 3%. For the last three years, this growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for almost 60% of the country's total exports. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 28 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. Peru's free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, concluded negotiations with Guatemala, and begun trade talks with Honduras and El Salvador, Turkey and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that rivals Mercosur. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the United States has doubled. Although Peru has continued to attract foreign investment, political activism and protests are hampering development of some projects related to natural resource extraction.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$344 billion (2013 est.)
$327.3 billion (2012 est.)
$308 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$210.3 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
5.1% (2013 est.)
6.3% (2012 est.)
6.9% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$11,100 (2013 est.)
$10,700 (2012 est.)
$10,300 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
22.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 62.4%
government consumption: 10.8%
investment in fixed capital: 27%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 24.4%
imports of goods and services: -24.7%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 6.2%
industry: 37.5%
services: 56.3% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
16.16 million
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2012 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate:
3.6% (2012 est.)
3.9% (2011 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
Population below poverty line:
25.8% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
48.1 (2010)
51 (2005)
revenues: $60.95 billion
expenditures: $58.91 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
29% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
14.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (2013 est.)
3.4% (2011 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
Central bank discount rate:
5.05% (31 December 2012)
5.05% (31 December 2011)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
20.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
19.23% (31 December 2012 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
Stock of narrow money:
$32.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$32.61 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$80.91 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$77.62 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$37.96 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$36.76 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2012)
$121.6 billion (31 December 2011)
$160.9 billion (31 December 2010)
Current account balance:
-$10.31 billion (2013 est.)
-$7.137 billion (2012 est.)
$41.48 billion (2013 est.)
$45.64 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
Exports partners:
China 19.9%, US 15.7%, Canada 9.5%, Japan 6.6%, Spain 5.2%, Chile 4.9% (2012)
$42.13 billion (2013 est.)
$41.11 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
Imports partners:
US 24.6%, China 14%, Brazil 6.4%, Argentina 5%, Chile 4.8%, Colombia 4.2%, Ecuador 4.1%, Mexico 4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$65.15 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$64.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$50.15 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$50.47 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note: public debt component of total: $20.6 billion (31 December 2009)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$76.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$63.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$3.165 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.041 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
2.699 (2013 est.)
2.6376 (2012 est.)
2.8251 (2010 est.)
3.0115 (2009)
2.91 (2008)
Electricity production:
38.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity consumption:
34.25 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity exports:
112 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
8.613 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
60.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
39.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
160,400 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
15,610 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil imports:
99,590 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
579.2 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
159,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
206,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
82,080 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
43,480 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Natural gas production:
32.4 billion cu m (2012)
Natural gas consumption:
5.49 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
8.73 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2012)
Natural gas proved reserves:
359.6 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
37.71 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
29.4 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
Telephones main lines in use:
3.42 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
9.158 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
234,102 (2012)
191 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
5 (2013)
extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,772 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 135 km 0.914-m gauge (2012)
total: 140,672 km (of which 18,698 km are paved)
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (of which 14,748 km are paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
Merchant marine:
total: 22
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)
Military branches:
Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP; includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 7,385,588
females age 16-49: 7,727,623 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,788,629
females age 16-49: 6,565,097 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 304,094
female: 298,447 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.28% of GDP (2012)
1.15% of GDP (2011)
1.28% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2013 est.)
Trafficking in persons: