Pitcairn Islands( Australia-Oceania )


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Background:
Pitcairn Island was discovered in 1767 by the British and settled in 1790 by the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions. Pitcairn was the first Pacific island to become a British colony (in 1838) and today remains the last vestige of that empire in the South Pacific. Outmigration, primarily to New Zealand, has thinned the population from a peak of 233 in 1937 to less than 50 today.
Geography
Location:
Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about midway between Peru and New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
25 04 S, 130 06 W
Area:
total: 47 sq km
land: 47 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
about three tenths the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
51 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain:
rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Big Ridge 347 m
Natural resources:
miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish
note: manganese, iron, copper, gold, silver, and zinc have been discovered offshore
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
typhoons (especially November to March)
Environment current issues:
deforestation (only a small portion of the original forest remains because of burning and clearing for settlement)
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
Britain's most isolated dependency; only the larger island of Pitcairn is inhabited but it has no port or natural harbor; supplies must be transported by rowed longboat from larger ships stationed offshore
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective: Pitcairn Islander
Ethnic groups:
descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian wives
Languages:
English (official), Pitkern (mixture of an 18th century English dialect and a Tahitian dialect)
Religions:
Seventh-Day Adventist 100%
Population:
48 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
Population growth rate:
0% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
Death rate:
Net migration rate:
Urbanization:
urban population: 0% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
Sex ratio:
NA
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:
NA
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
Sanitation facility access:
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
NA
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: Adamstown
geographic coordinates: 25 04 S, 130 05 W
time difference: UTC-9 (4 hours behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926); Discovery Day, 2 July (1767)
Constitution:
several previous; latest made 10 February 2010, presented 17 February 2010, effective 4 March 2010 (2010)
Legal system:
local island by-laws
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal with three years residency
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn Islands Victoria M. TREADELL (since May 2010); Commissioner (nonresident) Leslie JAQUES (since September 2003) serves as liaison between the governor and the Island Council
head of government: Mayor and Chairman of the Island Council Shawn CHRISTIAN (since 13 November 2013)
cabinet: NA
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor elected by popular vote for a three-year term; election last held in November 2013 (next to be held not later than December 2016)
election results: Shawn CHRISTIAN elected mayor and chairman of the Island Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Island Council (10 seats; mayor, deputy mayor, 5 members elected by popular vote, 3 ex officio members including governor, deputy governor, and commissioner; deputy mayor and elected members serve two-year terms)
elections: last held on 13 November 2013 (next to be held not later than December 2015)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 5 independents
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Pitcairn Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, 2 judges, and the Supreme Court chief justice (ex-officio member); Pitcairn Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 2 judges)
note - appeals beyond the Pitcairn Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London);the Court of Appeal was established in 2000 by an Order in Council
judge selection and term of office: all judges of both courts appointed by the governor of the Pitcairn Islands on the instructions of the Queen of England through the Secretary of State; all judges appointed until retirement, normally at age 75
subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court
Political parties and leaders:
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
none
International organization participation:
SPC, UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the green, yellow, and blue of the shield represents the island rising from the ocean; the green field features a yellow anchor surmounted by a bible (both the anchor and the bible were items found on the HMS Bounty); sitting on the crest is a Pitcairn Island wheelbarrow from which springs a slip of miro (a local plant)
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
name: "We From Pitcairn Island"
lyrics/music: unknown/Frederick M. LEHMAN
note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Economy
Economy overview:
The inhabitants of this tiny isolated economy exist on fishing, subsistence farming, handicrafts, and postage stamps. The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$NA
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GDP composition, by end use:
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Agriculture products:
honey; wide variety of fruits and vegetables; goats, chickens; fish
Industries:
postage stamps, handicrafts, beekeeping, honey
Industrial production growth rate:
Labor force:
15 (2004)
Labor force by occupation:
note: no business community in the usual sense; some public works; subsistence farming and fishing
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $746,000
expenditures: $1.028 million (FY04/05)
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Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
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Exports:
$NA
Exports commodities:
fruits, vegetables, curios, stamps
Exports partners:
Imports:
$NA
Imports commodities:
fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other foodstuffs
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar -
1.247 (2013)
1.2334 (2012)
1.3874 (2010)
1.6002 (2009)
1.4151 (2008)
Energy
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Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: satellite-based phone services
domestic: local phone service with international connections via Internet
international: country code - 872; satellite earth station - 1 (Inmarsat)
Telephones main lines in use:
Broadcast media:
satellite TV from Fiji-based Sky Pacific offering a wide range of international channels
Internet country code:
.pn
Internet users:
Internet hosts:
26 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
Airports with paved runways:
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
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Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Adamstown (on Bounty Bay)
Military
Military branches:
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Manpower fit for military service:
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
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Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: