Saint Helena Ascension and Tristan da Cunha( Africa )


Sh-lgflag.gif Sh large locator.gif Sh-map.gif

Background:
Saint Helena is a British Overseas Territory consisting of Saint Helena and Ascension Islands, and the island group of Tristan da Cunha.
Saint Helena: Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, Saint Helena was garrisoned by the British during the 17th century. It acquired fame as the place of Napoleon BONAPARTE's exile from 1815 until his death in 1821, but its importance as a port of call declined after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. During the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa, several thousand Boer prisoners were confined on the island between 1900 and 1903.
Ascension Island: This barren and uninhabited island was discovered and named by the Portuguese in 1503. The British garrisoned the island in 1815 to prevent a rescue of Napoleon from Saint Helena. It served as a provisioning station for the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron on anti-slavery patrol. The island remained under Admiralty control until 1922, when it became a dependency of Saint Helena. During World War II, the UK permitted the US to construct an airfield on Ascension in support of transatlantic flights to Africa and anti-submarine operations in the South Atlantic. In the 1960s the island became an important space tracking station for the US. In 1982, Ascension was an essential staging area for British forces during the Falklands War. It remains a critical refueling point in the air-bridge from the UK to the South Atlantic.
Tristan da Cunha: The island group consists of the islands of Tristan da Cunha, Nightingale, Inaccessible, and Gough. Tristan da Cunha is named after its Portuguese discoverer (1506); it was garrisoned by the British in 1816 to prevent any attempt to rescue Napoleon from Saint Helena. Gough and Inaccessible Islands have been designated World Heritage Sites. South Africa leases a site for a meteorological station on Gough Island.
Geography
Location:
islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, about midway between South America and Africa; Ascension Island lies 1,300 km (800 mi) northwest of Saint Helena; Tristan da Cunha lies 4,300 km (2,700 mi) southwest of Saint Helena
Geographic coordinates:
Saint Helena: 15 57 S, 5 42 W
Ascension Island: 7 57 S, 14 22 W
Tristan da Cunha island group: 37 15 S, 12 30 W
Area:
total: 308 sq km
land: Saint Helena Island 122 sq km; Ascension Island 88 sq km; Tristan da Cunha island group 98 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
Saint Helena: 60 km
Ascension Island: NA
Tristan da Cunha: 40 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Saint Helena: tropical marine; mild, tempered by trade winds
Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild, semi-arid
Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)
Terrain:
the islands of this group result from volcanic activity associated with the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge
Saint Helena: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains
Ascension: surface covered by lava flows and cinder cones of 44 dormant volcanoes; ground rises to the east
Tristan da Cunha: sheer cliffs line the coastline of the nearly circular island; the flanks of the central volcanic peak are deeply dissected; narrow coastal plain lies between The Peak and the coastal cliffs
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha 2,060 m; Green Mountain on Ascension Island 859 m; Mount Actaeon on Saint Helena Island 818 m
Natural resources:
fish, lobster
Land use:
arable land: 10.26%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 89.74% (2011)
Irrigated land:
NA
Total renewable water resources:
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
Natural hazards:
active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha
volcanism: the island volcanoes of Tristan da Cunha (elev. 2,060 m) and Nightingale Island (elev. 365 m) experience volcanic activity; Tristan da Cunha erupted in 1962 and Nightingale in 2004
Environment current issues:
NA
Environment international agreements:
Geography note:
Saint Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown elsewhere in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns; Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain in the South Atlantic and a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Saint Helenian(s)
adjective: Saint Helenian
note: referred to locally as "Saints"
Ethnic groups:
African descent 50%, white 25%, Chinese 25%
Languages:
English
Religions:
Protestant (Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist), Roman Catholic
Population:
7,776
note: only Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha islands are inhabited, not any of the other nearby islands/islets (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.9% (male 669/female 643)
15-24 years: 11.9% (male 471/female 455)
25-54 years: 45.1% (male 1,737/female 1,773)
55-64 years: 12.4% (male 508/female 455)
65 years and over: 13.2% (male 543/female 522) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
Median age:
total: 40.5 years
male: 40.5 years
female: 40.4 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.27% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
10.03 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
7.33 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 39.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: -0.87% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
JAMESTOWN (capital) 1,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 14.71 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.21 years
male: 76.27 years
female: 82.29 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.58 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Health expenditures:
Physicians density:
Hospital bed density:
Drinking water source:
Sanitation facility access:
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
NA
HIV or AIDS deaths:
NA
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Education expenditures:
Literacy:
definition: age 20 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 98% (1987 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Child labor children ages 5-14:
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
conventional short form: none
Government type:
NA
Capital:
name: Jamestown
geographic coordinates: 15 56 S, 5 43 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
3 administrative areas; Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha
Independence:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)
Constitution:
several previous; latest effective 1 September 2009 (The St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009) (2013)
Legal system:
English common law and local statutes
International law organization participation:
Suffrage:
18 years of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor Mark CAPES (since 29 October 2011)
note: the constitution order provides for an administrator for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha appointed by the governor
Administrator Ascension Island: Colin WELLS (since 27 October 2011)
Administrator Tristan da Cunha: Alex MITHAM (since 23 September 2013)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, 3 ex-officio officers, and 5 elected members of the Legislative Council
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council (17 seats, including a speaker and deputy speaker, 12 elected, and three ex-officio members; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
note: the Constitution Order provides for separate Island Councils for both Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
elections: last held on 4 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 12
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice - a non-resident - and NA judges)
note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: court judges' appointments and tenures NA
subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Small Claims Court; Juvenile Court
Political parties and leaders:
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: private sector; unions
International organization participation:
UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the upper third of the shield depicts a white plover (wire bird) on a yellow field; the remainder of the shield depicts a rocky coastline on the left, offshore is a three-masted sailing ship with sails furled but flying an English flag
National symbol(s):
Saint Helena plover (bird)
National anthem:
note: as a territory of the UK, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Economy
Economy overview:
The economy depends largely on financial assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $27 million in FY06/07 or more than twice the level of annual budgetary revenues. The local population earns income from fishing, raising livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, 25% of the work force has left to seek employment on Ascension Island, on the Falklands, and in the UK.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$31.1 million (FY09/10 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$NA
GDP real growth rate:
NA%
GDP per capita (PPP):
$7,800 (FY09/10 est.)
Gross national saving:
GDP composition, by end use:
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Agriculture products:
coffee, corn, potatoes, vegetables; fish, lobster; livestock; timber
Industries:
construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing, collectible postage stamps
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Labor force:
2,486 (1998 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 48%
services: 46% (1987 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income Gini index:
Budget:
revenues: $10.21 million
expenditures: $25.09 million
note: revenue data reflect locally raised revenues only; the budget deficit is resolved by grant aid from the UK (FY06/07 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of narrow money:
Stock of broad money:
Stock of domestic credit:
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
Exports:
$19 million (2004 est.)
Exports commodities:
fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), coffee, handicrafts
Exports partners:
Imports:
$20.53 million (2010 est.)
Imports commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
Imports partners:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt external:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
Saint Helenian pounds (SHP) per US dollar -
0.6307 (2014)
0.6391 (2013)
0.6472 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
8 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
7.44 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
5,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
63 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
9,100 Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: can communicate worldwide
domestic: automatic digital network
international: country code (Saint Helena) - 290, (Ascension Island) - 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Saint Helena - 1) (2010)
Telephones main lines in use:
3,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
St. Helena has no local TV station; 2 local radio stations, one of which is relayed to Ascension Island; satellite TV stations rebroadcast terrestrially; Ascension Island has no local TV station but has 1 local radio station and receives relays of broadcasts from 1 radio station on St. Helena; broadcasts from the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) are available, as well as TV services for the US military; Tristan da Cunha has 1 local radio station and receives BFBS TV and radio broadcasts (2007)
Internet country code:
.sh; note - Ascension Island assigned .ac
Internet users:
900 (2009)
Internet hosts:
6,729 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
1 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
Heliports:
Pipelines:
Railways:
Roadways:
total: 198 km (Saint Helena 138 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 20 km)
paved: 168 km (Saint Helena 118 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 10 km)
unpaved: 30 km (Saint Helena 20 km, Tristan da Cunha 10 km) (2002)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s):
Saint Helena: Jamestown
Ascension Island: Georgetown
Tristan da Cunha: Calshot Harbor (Edinburgh)
Military
Military branches:
Military service age and obligation:
Manpower available for military service:
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,565
females age 16-49: 1,579 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 49
female: 48 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Trafficking in persons: