Tajikistan( Central Asia )

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The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents during 2010-12, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistanis working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the major role narcotrafficking plays in the country's informal economy.
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 71 00 E
total: 143,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:
arable land: 5.96%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 93.13% (2011)
Irrigated land:
7,421 sq km (2009)
Total renewable water resources:
21.91 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 11.49 cu km/yr (6%/4%/91%)
per capita: 1,740 cu m/yr (2006)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes; floods
Environment current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
People and Society
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:
Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
note: estimates of Uzbek proportion can range as high as 25% depending on how mixed Tajik-Uzbek families (largely in border areas) are counted
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
8,051,512 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 1,352,150/female 1,304,615)
15-24 years: 20.1% (male 819,936/female 796,211)
25-54 years: 38.9% (male 1,547,863/female 1,586,218)
55-64 years: 4.8% (male 178,161/female 210,616)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 107,137/female 148,605) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 64.33 %
youth dependency ratio: 59.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.2 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 23.5 years
male: 23 years
female: 24 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.75% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
24.99 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 26.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
DUSHANBE (capital) 739,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 35.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 30.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
65 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.06 years
male: 63.96 years
female: 70.32 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.76 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
27.9% (2012)
Health expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
1.9 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density:
5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 93% of population
rural: 64% of population
total: 71.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 7% of population
rural: 36% of population
total: 28.3% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 93.6% of population
rural: 94.6% of population
total: 94.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.4% of population
rural: 5.4% of population
total: 5.6% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
11,900 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
500 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
8.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
15% (2007)
Education expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2011)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 164,432
percentage: 10 % (2005 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 16.7%
male: 19.2%
female: 13.7% (2009)
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994; amended 1999, 2003 (2009)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013); First Deputy Prime Minister Davlatali SAIDOV (since 19 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for two terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV 5%, other 11.1%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members elected through constituencies, 22 members elected through party selection; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 71%, IRPT 8.2%, CPT 7%, APT 5.1%, PERT 5.1%, other 3.6%; seats by party - PDPT 55, IRPT 2, CPT 2, APT 2, PERT 2
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all three courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan [Saidjafar ISMONOV]
Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFOROV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA
unregistered Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON]
unregistered opposition group Guruhi-24 (Group-24) [Umarali QUVVATOV]
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
unregistered presidential candidate of Union of Reformist Forces of Tajikistan Oynihol BOBONAZAROVA
unregistered New Tajikistan party [Zayd SAIDOV]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Susan M. ELLIOTT (since 25 July 2012)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag description:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
National symbol(s):
crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars
National anthem:
name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
Economy overview:
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. The 1992-1997 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Until 2008, cotton production was closely monitored and controlled by the government. In the wake of the National Bank of Tajikistan's admission in December 2007 that it had directed the AgroInvestBank to improperly lend money to politically connected investors in the cotton sector, the IMF canceled its stand-by assistance program in Tajikistan. As part of the Tajik government’s subsequent reforms, over a half billion dollars in farmer debt has been forgiven. In 2008 Tajikistan passed new law authorizing farmers to decide for themselves what crops to grow, and this has resulted in a gradual decrease in cotton output. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food, most of which comes by rail. Uzbekistan closed one of the rail lines into Tajikistan in late 2011, hampering the transit of goods to and from the southern part of the country. As a result, food and fuel prices increased to the highest levels since 2002. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating below 25% of capacity. Electricity output expanded with the completion of the Sangtuda-1 hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment. The smaller Sangtuda-2 hydropower dam, built with Iranian investment, began operating in 2012 at a limited capacity. The Tajik government is tens of millions of dollars in arrears for both Sangtuda dams, and Sangtuda-2 has been closed for “maintenance” since January 2014. The government is pinning its drive for energy independence on completion of the Roghun dam, which is scheduled for mid-2014. In 2010, the government began a coerced sale of shares in the Roghun enterprise to its population, ultimately raising over $180 million before stopping under intense criticism from international donors, but the dam is likely to cost billions of dollars. The World Bank funded two feasibility studies (technical-economic, and social-environmental) for the dam. If built according to plan, Roghun will be the tallest dam in the world, will operate year around, and will significantly expand Tajikistan’s electricity output. In 2013, the Tajik government finalized an agreement to import one million tons of fuel and oil products from Russia each year, at reduced prices. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and its large external debt burden.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$19.2 billion (2013 est.)
$17.88 billion (2012 est.)
$16.63 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$8.513 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
7.4% (2013 est.)
7.5% (2012 est.)
7.4% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$2,300 (2013 est.)
$2,200 (2012 est.)
$2,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
12.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
17.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
10% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 97%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 14%
investment in inventories: 6.7%
exports of goods and services: 13.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.5%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 21.1%
industry: 23.2%
services: 55.7% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate:
3.9% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
2.209 million (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 46.5%
industry: 10.7%
services: 42.8% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.5% (2013 est.)
2.5% (2012 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
Population below poverty line:
35.6% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
revenues: $2.425 billion
expenditures: $2.423 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
28.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
6.5% of GDP
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2013 est.)
5.8% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
4.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
22% (31 December 2013 est.)
17.13% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$1.044 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.191 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$2.033 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.555 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.611 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.196 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
-$330 million (2013 est.)
-$246.2 million (2012 est.)
$1.163 billion (2013 est.)
$826.6 million (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports partners:
Turkey 40.7%, Russia 10.6%, Iran 9.9%, Afghanistan 8.7%, China 7.4%, Kazakhstan 7.4%, Switzerland 6.6% (2012 est.)
$4.121 billion (2013 est.)
$3.778 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports partners:
Russia 22%, Kazakhstan 15.2%, China 14.5%, Lithuania 4.7%, Kyrgyzstan 4.4%, Turkey 4.4%, Iran 4.3% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.072 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$972 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$2.162 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.439 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$NA (31 December 2010 est.)
$16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
4.76 (2013 est.)
4.76 (2012 est.)
4.379 (2010 est.)
4.1428 (2009)
3.4563 (2008)
Electricity production:
17.09 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity consumption:
16.09 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity exports:
1 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity imports:
300.5 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
4.476 million kW (2013 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
9% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
91% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil production:
553 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
12 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
400 bbl/day
Refined petroleum products consumption:
20,090 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
20,090 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas production:
3.928 million cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
3.928 million cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
2.618 million Mt (2013 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
6.528 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998 while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
393,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
state-run TV broadcaster transmits nationally on 4 stations and regionally on 4 stations; 11 independent TV stations broadcast locally and regionally; some households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite; state-run radio broadcaster operates Radio Tajikistan, Voice of Dushanbe, and several regional stations; a small number of independent radio stations (2010)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
700,000 (2009)
Internet hosts:
6,258 (2012)
24 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
total: 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
total: 27,767 km (2000)
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,012,790
females age 16-49: 2,020,618 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,490,267
females age 16-49: 1,675,083 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 76,430
female: 74,038 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,300 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: