Togo( Africa )

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French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
56 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 3.7%
other: 52.1% (2011)
Irrigated land:
73 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
14.7 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 0.17 cu km/yr (63%/3%/34%)
per capita: 33.46 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
People and Society
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.7% (male 1,499,011/female 1,490,513)
15-24 years: 19.7% (male 723,237/female 726,350)
25-54 years: 32.1% (male 1,173,492/female 1,188,961)
55-64 years: 4.2% (male 145,743/female 163,384)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 104,277/female 136,406) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 80.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 75.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5 %
potential support ratio: 20.2 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.6 years
male: 19.3 years
female: 19.8 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.71% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
34.52 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
7.43 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 38% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
LOME (capital) 1.524 million (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 46.73 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 53.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.06 years
male: 61.49 years
female: 66.71 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.53 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
15.2% (2010)
Health expenditures:
8% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 40.3% of population
total: 60% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 59.7% of population
total: 40% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 25.5% of population
rural: 2.5% of population
total: 11.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 74.5% of population
rural: 97.5% of population
total: 88.7% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
2.9% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
128,100 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
7,200 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
4.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
16.5% (2010)
Education expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2011)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.4%
male: 74.1%
female: 48% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 774,801
percentage: 47 % (2010 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Country name:
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, last in 2005 (2005)
Legal system:
customary law system
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);
head of government: Prime Minister Kwesi Seleagodji AHOOMEY-ZUNU (since 23 July 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (91 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independents 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into the Criminal Chamber and the Administrative Chamber, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); appeals courts; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
Political parties and leaders:
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA
Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Rainbow Alliance (a colalition including: CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte Adjamagbo JOHNSON]
Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]
Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Limbiye Edawa Kadangha BARIKI (since 14 July 2009)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. WHITEHEAD (since 3 May 2012)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
Flag description:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National symbol(s):
National anthem:
name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
Economy overview:
This small, sub-Saharan economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and Togo seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed over recent years. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a HIPC debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$7.348 billion (2013 est.)
$6.964 billion (2012 est.)
$6.594 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.299 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
5.5% (2013 est.)
5.6% (2012 est.)
4.8% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$1,100 (2013 est.)
$1,100 (2012 est.)
$1,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
9.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 87.5%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 36.9%
imports of goods and services: -54%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 27.6%
industry: 33.7%
services: 38.7% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
5.1% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
2.595 million (2007)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
revenues: $825.8 million
expenditures: $983 million (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
19.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2013 est.)
2.6% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
2.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of narrow money:
$1.138 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.057 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$1.971 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.819 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.594 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.471 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
-$355.1 million (2013 est.)
-$372.2 million (2012 est.)
$982.2 million (2013 est.)
$960.5 million (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports partners:
India 14.2%, Lebanon 10.6%, Burkina Faso 7.6%, Benin 7.5%, China 6.1%, Niger 5.8%, Netherlands 5.2%, Ghana 4.4% (2012)
$1.677 billion (2013 est.)
$1.604 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports partners:
China 40.4%, Netherlands 7.9%, France 5.4%, UK 5.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$531.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$441.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$719 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$658.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
Electricity production:
127.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
676.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
710 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
85,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
21.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
78.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
28,670 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
9,773 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.445 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
3.518 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 50 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2010)
Telephones main lines in use:
225,000 (2012)
Broadcast media:
2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
356,300 (2009)
Internet hosts:
1,168 (2012)
8 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
total: 11,652 km
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)
Merchant marine:
total: 61
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome
Military branches:
Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,577,572
females age 16-49: 1,589,715 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,104,536
females age 16-49: 1,158,061 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 74,036
female: 73,515 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
NA% (2012)
1.6% of GDP (2011)
NA% (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 17,746 (Ghana) (2013)
IDPs: undetermined (2012)
Trafficking in persons: