Turkey( Middle East )


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Background:
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2013, KGK and the Turkish Government agreed to a ceasefire that continues despite slow progress in ongoing peace talks. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.
Geography
Location:
Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 35 00 E
Area:
total: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
Land boundaries:
total: 2,656 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline:
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climate:
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain:
high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 26.21%
permanent crops: 3.94%
other: 69.84% (2011)
Irrigated land:
53,400 sq km (2012)
Total renewable water resources:
211.6 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 40.1 cu km/yr (14%/10%/76%)
per capita: 572.9 cu m/yr (2008)
Natural hazards:
severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
Environment current issues:
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography note:
strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups:
Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)
Languages:
Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
Religions:
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Population:
81,619,392 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.5% (male 10,660,110/female 10,179,850)
15-24 years: 16.8% (male 6,989,099/female 6,709,480)
25-54 years: 42.9% (male 17,650,790/female 17,358,730)
55-64 years: 8.1% (male 3,289,605/female 3,291,199)
65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,517,219/female 2,973,310) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 48.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 37.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 11.2 %
potential support ratio: 8.9 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 29.6 years
male: 29.2 years
female: 30 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.12% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
16.86 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
6.12 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 71.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
Istanbul 11.253 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.194 million; Izmir 2.927 million; Bursa 1.713 million; Adana 1.468 million; Gaziantep 1.198 million (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 21.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.29 years
male: 71.33 years
female: 75.35 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
73% (2008)
Health expenditures:
6.7% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density:
2.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 98.8% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 1.2% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 75.5% of population
total: 91.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 24.5% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
4,600 (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
27.8% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.5% (2004)
Education expenditures:
2.9% of GDP (2006)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.1%
male: 97.9%
female: 90.3% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 15 years
female: 14 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 321,866
percentage: 3 %
note: data represents children ages 6-14 (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 17.5%
male: 16.3%
female: 19.9% (2012)
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government type:
republican parliamentary democracy
Capital:
name: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence:
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Constitution:
several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982; amended 2001, 2007, 2010 (2010)
Legal system:
civil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president upon the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Abdullah GUL elected president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 June 2011 (next likely to be held by June 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.8%, CHP 25.9%, MHP 13%, independents 6.6%, other 4.7%; seats by party - AKP 326, CHP 135, MHP 53, independents 36; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 17 members); Supreme Court of Appeals organized into 15 divisions with 38 civil and criminal chambers and consisting of 250 high judges and 440 rapporteur judges)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president from among candidates submitted by plenary assemblies of other courts, the Higher Education Council, senior government administrators, and lawyers; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms and with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]
Democratic Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party)
Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Independent Turkey Party or BTP [Haydar BAS]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
Peace and Democracy Party or BDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS]
People's Democracy Party or HDP [Sebahat TUNCEL]
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 61 parties that Turkey had according to the Ministry of Interior statistics current as of May 2009
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]
Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem YILMAZ]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sedar KILIC (since 21 May 1014)
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, Newton (MA)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr. (since 3 January 2011)
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag description:
red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for the Turks, as well as being traditional symbols of Islam; according to legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
National symbol(s):
star and crescent
National anthem:
name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
Economy
Economy overview:
Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. Several gas pipelines projects also are moving forward to help transport Central Asian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey's dependence on imported oil and gas to meet 97% of its energy needs. After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis and GDP rebounded strongly to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Growth dropped to roughly 3-4% in 2012-13. Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio has fallen below 40%, and two rating agencies upgraded Turkey's debt to investment grade in 2012 and 2013. Turkey remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large current account deficit. The stock value of FDI reached nearly $195 billion at year-end 2013, reflecting Turkey's robust growth even in the face of economic turmoil in Europe, the source of much of Turkey's FDI. Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, domestic political uncertainty, and turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.167 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.124 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.101 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$821.8 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
3.8% (2013 est.)
2.2% (2012 est.)
8.8% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$15,300 (2013 est.)
$15,000 (2012 est.)
$14,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
19.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
20.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
23.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 71%
government consumption: 15.4%
investment in fixed capital: 19.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 26.6%
imports of goods and services: -32.5%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 8.9%
industry: 27.3%
services: 63.8% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
Industries:
textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
27.91 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 25.5%
industry: 26.2%
services: 48.4% (2010)
Unemployment rate:
9.3% (2013 est.)
9.2% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line:
16.9% (2010)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
40.2 (2010)
43.6 (2003)
Budget:
revenues: $190.4 billion
expenditures: $207.9 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
23.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
36.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
37.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.6% (2013 est.)
8.9% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
5.25% (31 December 2011)
15% (22 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
18.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
19% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$80.72 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$85.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$383.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$405.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$549.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$552.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$308.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$201.8 billion (31 December 2011)
$306.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Current account balance:
-$58.35 billion (2013 est.)
-$47.75 billion (2012 est.)
Exports:
$167.6 billion (2013 est.)
$163.3 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports partners:
Germany 8.6%, Iraq 7.1%, Iran 6.5%, UK 5.7%, UAE 5.4%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.2%, France 4.1% (2012)
Imports:
$242.9 billion (2013 est.)
$228.6 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports partners:
Russia 11.3%, Germany 9%, China 9%, US 6%, Italy 5.6%, Iran 5.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$117.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$119.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$359.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$336.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$194.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$181.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$33.44 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$30.94 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
1.899 (2013 est.)
1.796 (2012 est.)
1.5028 (2010 est.)
1.55 (2009)
1.3179 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
217.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity consumption:
170.4 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
1.49 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
4.362 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
49.52 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
64.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
32% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
3.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
56,650 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
338,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
270.4 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
418,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
706,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
107,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
301,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
632 million cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
38.13 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
600 million cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas imports:
45.92 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
6.173 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
296.3 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
67.68 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2010)
Telephones main lines in use:
13.86 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
Internet country code:
.tr
Internet users:
27.233 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
7.093 million (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
98 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 91
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports:
20 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 12,008 km
standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2012)
Roadways:
total: 385,748 km
paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
Merchant marine:
total: 629
by type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)
registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,121,549), Mersin (Icel) (1,126,866)
Military
Military branches:
Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 15 months conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates; conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; under a law passed in November 2011, men aged 30 and older, or who have worked 3 years in foreign countries, may pay $16,200 in lieu of mandatory military service (2013)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 21,079,077
females age 16-49: 20,558,696 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 17,664,510
females age 16-49: 17,340,816 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 700,079
female: 670,328 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
2.31% of GDP (2012)
2.28% of GDP (2011)
2.31% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 13,467 (Iraq) (2013); 783,065 (Syria) (2014)
IDPs: 954,000-1.2 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2012)
stateless persons: 780 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: