Zambia( Africa )


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Background:
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential by-election in October 2008. Michael SATA was elected president in September 2011.
Geography
Location:
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 S, 30 00 E
Area:
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 5,664.1 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Botswana 0.1 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 4.52%
permanent crops: 0.05%
other: 95.44% (2011)
Irrigated land:
1,559 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
105.2 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 1.57 cu km/yr (18%/8%/73%)
per capita: 147 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards:
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Environment current issues:
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
People and Society
Nationality:
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups:
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Languages:
Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Chewa 4.5%, Lozi 5.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.4%, unspecified 0.4%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although man of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Religions:
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Population:
14,638,505
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 46.2% (male 3,393,388/female 3,362,850)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,465,009/female 1,467,555)
25-54 years: 28.5% (male 2,105,768/female 2,072,314)
55-64 years: 2.9% (male 199,098/female 222,214)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 151,471/female 198,838) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 96.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 91.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 %
potential support ratio: 19.6 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.8 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.88% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
42.46 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
12.92 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 39.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
LUSAKA (capital) 1.802 million (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 66.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 72.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
440 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.83 years
male: 50.24 years
female: 53.48 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.76 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
40.8% (2007)
Health expenditures:
6.1% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density:
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 84.8% of population
rural: 49.2% of population
total: 63.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 15.2% of population
rural: 50.8% of population
total: 36.7% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 33.9% of population
total: 42.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 66.1% of population
total: 57.2% of population (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
12.7% (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
1,106,400 (2012 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
30,300 (2012 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
3.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
14.9% (2007)
Education expenditures:
1.3% of GDP (2008)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 61.4%
male: 71.9%
female: 51.8% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 13 years (2012)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 1,000,850
percentage: 41 %
note: data represents children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 23.4% (2005)
Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996; note - in late 2013, a constitution committee submitted a draft constitution to the government, but the government has not yet publicly released the final copy or presented a plan to adopt the document (2013)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Michael Chilufya SATA (since 23 September 2011); Vice President Guy SCOTT (since 30 September 2011); the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michael Chilufya SATA (since 23 September 2011); Vice President Guy SCOTT (since 30 September 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly, along with eight unelected members
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Michael Chilufya SATA elected president; percent of vote - Michael SATA 43.3%, Rupiah BANDA 36.2%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 18.5%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - over 25 by-elections, prompted by resignation, death, change of party or legal nullification have taken place since September 2011
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 60, MMD 55, UPND 28, ADD 1, FDD 1, independents 3; seats not determined 2; note - seats as of 4 March 2014 - PF 69, MMD 41, UPND 31, ADD 1, FDD 1, independents 2, pending court decision 7, other 6
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate's courts and local courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Alliance for a Better Zambia or ABZ [Frank BWALYA]
Christian Democratic Party or CDP [Daniel PULE]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
National Restoration Party or NAREP [Elias CHIPIMO]
National Revolution Party or NRP [Cosmo MUMBA]
Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]
Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]
Republican Progressive Party or RPP [James LUKUKU]
United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Palan MULONDA (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David J. YOUNG
embassy: Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
Flag description:
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
National symbol(s):
African fish eagle
National anthem:
name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Economy
Economy overview:
Zambia's economy has experienced strong growth in recent years, with real GDP growth in 2005-13 more than 6% per year. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly increased copper mining output and profitability to spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. Zambia's dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but record high copper prices and a bumper maize crop in 2010 helped Zambia rebound quickly from the world economic slowdown that began in 2008. Zambia has made some strides to improve the ease of doing business. Regulatory changes by the current government in 2012-2013 included Statutory Instruments (SI) Number 33 (mandating use of the kwacha for domestic transactions) and SI Number 55 (monitoring foreign exchange transactions). Along with problems of fiscal management and weakening global copper prices, these SI's were perceived as undermining confidence in Zambia's economy and currency, leading to sharp depreciation of the kwacha in March 2014. In response, the Minister of Finance revoked SI 33 and 55 in late March 2014. Despite a strong economy, poverty remains a significant problem in Zambia, made worse by a high birth rate, relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market distorting agricultural policies.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$25.47 billion (2013 est.)
$24.01 billion (2012 est.)
$22.39 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$22.24 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
6% (2013 est.)
7.2% (2012 est.)
6.8% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2013 est.)
$1,700 (2012 est.)
$1,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
14.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
23.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 60%
government consumption: 26.5%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 36.2%
imports of goods and services: -42.9%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 19.8%
industry: 33.8%
services: 46.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Industries:
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate:
8% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
6.275 million (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
60.5% (2010)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
57.5 (2010)
50.8 (2004)
Budget:
revenues: $4.814 billion
expenditures: $6.687 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
21.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
31.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.1% (2013 est.)
6.6% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
8.39% (31 December 2009)
14.49% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
12.15% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$2.299 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.185 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$5.047 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.86 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$5.458 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.833 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011)
$NA (31 December 2010 est.)
Current account balance:
-$1.25 billion (2013 est.)
-$189.9 million (2012 est.)
Exports:
$8.547 billion (2013 est.)
$9.414 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports partners:
China 43.4%, South Africa 7.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.7%, South Korea 5.4%, India 4.7%, UAE 4.3%, Egypt 4.1% (2012)
Imports:
$8.216 billion (2013 est.)
$7.961 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
Imports partners:
South Africa 36.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 19.8%, China 10.4%, Kuwait 6% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.833 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.042 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$5.985 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.618 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
5.3 (2013 est.)
5.1 (2012 est.)
4,797.1 (2010 est.)
5,046.1 (2009)
3,512.9 (2008)
Energy
Electricity production:
11.19 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity consumption:
7.96 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity exports:
578 million kWh (2010)
Electricity imports:
23 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
1.679 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
0.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
99.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil production:
174.6 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
12,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
12,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
19,260 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
254 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
1,272 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
2.434 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications
Telephones mobile cellular:
10.525 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
Telephones main lines in use:
82,500 (2012)
Broadcast media:
state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 1 TV station and is the principal local-content provider; several private TV stations; multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 3 radio networks; about 2 dozen private radio stations; relays of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2007)
Internet country code:
.zm
Internet users:
816,200 (2009)
Internet hosts:
16,571 (2012)
Transportation
Airports:
88 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Heliports:
Pipelines:
oil 771 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 2,922 km
narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2013)
Roadways:
total: 67,671 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km
Merchant marine:
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
Military
Military branches:
Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, National Service (paramilitary youth organization) (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,041,069
females age 16-49: 2,948,291 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,745,656
females age 16-49: 1,688,670 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 158,592
female: 158,805 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.55% of GDP (2012)
1.59% of GDP (2011)
1.55% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 16,684 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2013)
Trafficking in persons: