- 1 Definition / Scope
- 2 Market Overview
- 3 Key Metrics
- 4 Market Risks
- 5 Top Market Opportunities
- 6 Market Drivers
- 7 Market Restraints
- 8 Industry Challenges
- 9 Technology Trends
- 10 Pricing Trends
- 11 Regulatory Trends
- 12 Market Size and Forecast
- 13 Market Outlook
- 14 Distribution Chain Analysis
- 15 Competitive Landscape
- 16 Key Market Players
- 17 Strategic Conclusion
- 18 Further Reading
Definition / Scope
The country has a long coastline of 8129 km and an extensive river and canal system of about 5.210 km, consisting of 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers, and numerous small rivers and streams. In addition, pond and tank resources are estimated at 2.36 million hectares in addition to vast inland water resources and hence offers scope for large exploitation of marine wealth.
India’s freshwater resources consist of rivers and canals (197,024 km), reservoirs (3.15 million ha), ponds and tanks (235 million ha), oxbow lakes and derelict waters (1.3 million ha), brackish waters (1.24 million hectares) and estuaries (0.29 million hectares).
The aquaculture sector of India witnessed a boom with the introduction of White leg shrimps (Litopenaeus Vannamei; also known as Penaeus Vannamei) in 2004. Over the past decade, production and export of Vannamei shrimps have outpaced the native species such as the Black Tiger which was the dominant farmed species until 2003. The dominant place that Black Tiger held in global shrimp farm production was due to a number of factors, including their rapid growth rate, large harvest size, and relatively high market price.
However, the growing importance of Vannamei variety is attributed to the favorable characteristics of their commercial production in the form of higher adaptability to the production environment (tolerance to varied temperature, salinity, etc.), superior disease resistance capability, higher growth rate, ease of breeding and relatively higher demand in the global market.
India has over 3000 species of fish. Among those, around 1906 comes under the Marine fishery category while nearly 1016 are harvested and cultivated in fresh water and rest more than 100 species fall under brackish water harvesting category.
Coastal fisheries fall under State jurisdiction while Deep-sea fisheries operations fall under the jurisdiction of the Union Government. Management of inshore fisheries is the responsibility of State Governments.
Fishing crafts in India
The multi-species multi-gear marine fishing sector of India is divided into four sectors:
- Deep sea fishing sector
Commercially important freshwater ornamental fishes
- Freshwater Shark
- Puffer fish
- Snake head
- Glass fish
- Shark catfish
- Gold fish
- Sword tail
- Angel fish
India has total 212 breeding, Kerala has the highest number of fish breeding units.
Fisheries and Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector in India, which not only provides nutrition and food security to a large population of the country but also plays the vital role in providing income and employment to fishermen and fish farmers. Fisheries development in India is not only meeting the protein requirements of the country, but it is also making a significant contribution of about 6.2 percent in the fish production of the world.
India is the third largest fish producer in the world and second largest aquaculture producer worldwide. Overall, fish production has increased from 0.75 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 11.41 million tonnes in 2016-17. Besides, this sector provides employment and livelihood support to more than 15 million people of the country.
The average annual growth rate of fish and fish products in the world was 7.5% during the last decade, whereas India has attained the first position with 14.8% average annual growth in the export of fish & fishery products.
India’s marine fish production showed a sign of growth with a 5.6% increase in 2017.
The total marine fish landing in India (excluding Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Island) was 3.83 million tonnes in 2017. State wise, Gujarat topped the list totalling 0.786 million tonnes landing capturing 20.5% of the total landings. A total of 788 marine species were landed during 2017. Marine Fisheries contributes to food security and provides direct employment to over 1.5 million fisher people besides others indirectly dependent on the sector.
India is the second largest producer of fish next to China in aquaculture production. In India, this sector constitutes about 5% of the global fish production and 3% of the global fish trade.
The fisheries and aquaculture production contributes around 1% to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and over 5% to the agricultural GDP. Per capita, fish consumption in India lies between the ranges of 5 to 10 Kg.
Indian farmed shrimp production were 3,73,866 tonnes in 2015-16. The output grew by 16.2% in volume during 2016-17 recording 4, 34, 486 tonnes. Further, the volume reached above a record half million tonnes at a dramatic rate of 30% in 2017-18. Similarly, farmed finfish production was also growing in India. From 2015-18, there has been a steady growth in production from 2,28,749 tonnes to 3,53,192 tonnes. But the volume output of farmed cuttlefish remained constant over the four years period since 2015 with a little growth in 2016-17. The production levelled off at roughly 60,000 tonnes. Squid also saw the similar growth trend as that of cuttlefish during the period.
The fish base has listed 2,384 finfish species from Indian subcontinent that includes 1,704 marine, 762 fresh water, 202 endemic and 258 commercially exploited species. The marine fisheries resources of India comprises of more than 200 species of commercial finfish and shellfish.
The sector accounts for around 10% of the total exports of the country and nearly 20% of the agricultural exports.
Annual fish production crosses 6.4 million metric tonnes of which 53% constitute inland fish production and marine fish production covers the rest 47%.
There are 422 Fish Farming Development Agencies (FFDA) in India and over 39 Brackish water Fish Farming Development Agencies (BFDA) operating in fishery sector. More than 1000 hatcheries are located throughout India and Kerala has the highest number of hatcheries.
India is benefited from a wide range of water resources for fishing. India has one of the largest coastline covering 8129 kilometers and 1,91,024 kilometers of rivers and canals that flow through India. Also, reservoirs, ponds, and tanks are spread in more than 5 million hectare area for the fishery.
India exported 13,77,244 metric tonnes of seafood valued USD 7.08 billion in 2017-18.
USA and East-Asia is the major market for the export of Indian seafood. USA’s share in import stood at 32.76% and 31.59% that of Asia in dollar terms. The import is followed by EU with 15.77% import share, Japan’s 6.29% share and 3.21% share is contributed by Chinese import. Frozen shrimp accounted for 41.10% of total export quantity.
The overall export of shrimp during 2017-18 was 5,65,980 Metric tonnes worth USD 4,848.19 million, with USA continuing to be the largest market (2,25,946 MT) for frozen shrimp, followed by South East Asia (1,59,145 MT), EU (78,426 MT), Japan (33,828 metric tonnes.
Frozen fish, the second largest export item, contributed 25.64% in quantity and 10.35% in earnings, registering a growth of 9.03% in dollar terms.
|Base Year||2018||Researched through internet|
Damage from Climate change and other environmental issues
Not many fishermen in India benefit from insurance against declining fish production and falling market prices. No insurance covers such losses. Vessel insurance hasn’t also got widespread coverage.
Data shows that only one vessel insurance is covered in entire Kerala and below 15% of total vessels and gears used in marine fish production in Tamil Nadu has been covered by insurance. The damage from climate change and other natural disasters are not covered in many insurance policies related to the fishery.
Top Market Opportunities
Catfish is a huge potential segment and the diversification of cultivation practices has been identified as a national priority by the government of India. Eastern and North-eastern regions are considered as the best cultivation region. Currently, catfish are produced 10 tonnes per hectare. The government is planning to encourage 40 to 50 tonnes production per hectare. New production cages have been constructed having a capacity of 3 tonnes production per 96 cube volume surface.
Integrated rice-fish farming
Rice farming integrating with fish culture is a type of farming system in which rice is the primary crop while fish production is secondary crop but necessarily supporting the ecology. It helps to improve the soil fertility, minimize the use of pesticides, etc. while adding an extra source of income generation.
Consumers seek for nutritional, quality and safe fish on their plate. The demand for organic shrimp, organic salmon, and organic trout is driven globally. Export-oriented fish producers in India can tap into this segment to meet the ever-growing demand from health-conscious customers. Marine Product Export Development Authority (MPEDA) and COOP, a Switzerland based company have recently partnered to produce organic shrimp in India. MPEDA will assist entrepreneurs who want to work in this field and provide the technical skills on the production of high-quality organic shrimp production in 1, 000 hectares area in Kerala. This is a niche segment that India has discovered in the European market.
Increasing per capita consumption
The USA is the largest importer of fish from India. In the USA, per capita consumption in 2017 has increased to 16 pounds from 14.9 pounds in 2016. Among which, consumption of shrimp is the highest with an increase to 4.40 pounds in 2017. The import of value-added shrimp is expected to rise by 10% in 2019 because of the USA’s sanction of import from China.
Awareness towards health benefit
Dietary Guideline for America (DGA) recommended that an individual should consume an average of 32 ounces of seafood per month. Health practitioners are also recommending patients to eat seafood regularly. They advise adults to eat 4 ounces of fish per week.
Growth in Export
Shrimp export grew by 30% totaling 574000 tonnes in 2017. The USA met 36% of its total shrimp import from India in the first 10 months of 2018. This is a 17% increase from the 2017 percentage share.
Anti-dumping duty discouraging export
In 2017, revenue from export to the USA contributed USD 66 million for Sandhya Marines, a seafood exporter constituting 78.65 % of total export by while it paid an anti-dumping levy of USD 1 million.
Seafood Import Monitoring Programme (SIMP) made it mandatory to report and keep the record for imports of certain seafood products to prevent illegal, unreported, and unregulated seafood. This compliance began at the start of 2018. Shrimp compliance, in particular, became effective from the last month of 2018. The foreign-produced shrimps are required to be provided harvesting and landing data so that illegal production will not enter the US. As the USA is the largest importer of Indian shrimps, shrimps produced by the unorganized sector will face difficulty to trade in the US market.
Stringent regulatory norms and quality control
The seafood industry is monitored under high scrutiny. Various accreditations and certifications such as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approvals, British Retail Consortium (BRC) and Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) certifications are mandatory to be obtained by shrimp processing units to enable themselves to export the products to various global markets. Importing countries, particularly, USA and EU have stringent quality requirements and the manufacturing facilities of indigenous units have to be approved by the respective authorities of the countries. However, to receive and maintain these approvals and certifications, the companies need to invest in infrastructure and internal quality control.
The absence of adequate infrastructure has resulted in a large number of export rejections (39 in 2016, accounting for about 29% of global rejections) from US Foods & Drug Administration department due to traces of banned antibiotics found in the consignment. While the shrimp processors have increased their focus on the development of the infrastructure facilities to make them export compliant; export rejections still persists roughly 27% of global rejections during January –April 2017.
Seasonal nature of business
Production of shrimp in Aquaculture is seasonal in nature and harvested twice a year. Hence, the companies need to maintain stocks of shrimps at almost half of the inventory level. Seeds also cannot be stored for more than one month as the larvae have a specific shelf life. On account of the demand in the export market, shrimp processing companies majorly use aqua cultured shrimps.
Furthermore, there are varieties of lethal viral and bacterial diseases that affect shrimp. The fact that the shrimps are kept in clusters, acts as an exponential factor in multiplying the disease caught by a single shrimp and which may wipe out the almost 90% of total shrimp population in a particular farm. The farms generally take two to three months of a farming holiday to maintain the hygiene of the ponds and lakes.
Thus, the working capital requirement of the companies engaged in the business is also on the higher side. However, as the harvesting seasons are different for different parts of the country, for example, Eastern Coast‘s season lies during March-April, Bombay Coast’s season lies in August to October, many seafood processors procure the stock from the other states during the farming holidays which along with increased investment in cold storage have reduced the impact of seasonality in recent times.
Introduction of Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS)
Traditional fishing occurs in small scale, commercial or subsistence fishing practices using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc. But the commercial fishing gears are described briefly under active, passive and other miscellaneous fishing gears.
Active Fishing Gears
- Hooks & Lines: Fishes are enticed by edible or artificial bait or which simulates the appearance and movement of natural prey and are finally held by the hook concealed in the bait or lure. The hook is connected to a line or snood. The fish is also held by piercing action of hooks or jigs passing nearby. Eg: Pole & line, Jig line (squid jigging), Troll line.
- Lift net: Lift net consists of a horizontal netting panel or a cone-shaped bag with the mouth facing upward, which are submerged and lifted either manually or mechanically to filter the fish in the overlying water column.
- Falling gear: It is cast over the area where fish is available, then gathered and lifted to collect the fish. Eg: Cast net, Cover coat, Lantern net
Passive Fishing Gears'
- Grappling and wounding gear: Sharp implements such as clamps, tongs, lances, bow and arrow, harpoon and rifles are used for catching fish by wounding, grappling and killing.
- Electrical fishing: Effect of pulsating electric field on fishes such as first reaction, electro-taxis (anodic attraction), electro-narcosis and electrocution are utilized in electrical fishing equipment.
The FV SagarHarita
It is a 19.75-meter long fuel efficient multipurpose fishing vessel is designed by Fishing Technology Division of CIFT and built by Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL). This new generation energy efficient green fishing vessel is fitted with the latest technology solar panels, aiming to promote green energy and reduce the carbon footprints. The solar panels fitted on the vessel cater to the energy requirement for navigational lights, cabin lights etc.
The vessel also incorporates an optimized hull design with a bulbous bow, fuel-efficient propeller design, and improved sea keeping characteristics. Modern tools and techniques including software simulation and model testing have been used for the refinement of the design.
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It has a number of commercial and possible biomedical uses. Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin. Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of an N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and it is found in many places throughout the natural world.
It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (like the crab, lobster, and shrimp) and the insects, including ants, beetles, and butterflies, the radula of mollusks and the beaks of the cephalopods, including squid and octopuses. The shrimp processing industry in India turns out more than 1.25 lakh tonnes of head and shell waste per annum.
Until recently, it was creating enormous environmental pollution problems. Nearly 7,000 tonnes of chitin can be produced from the prawn shell which is thrown out as waste now. CIFT has developed a method for the extraction of chitin from shrimp shell waste The wet prawn shell collected from the peeling centers is initially converted into chitin which is then converted to chitosan by chemical process deacetylation. Then the alkali-free dried and powdered chitosan can be bagged in polythene lined HDPE (high-density polyethylene) woven sacks.
- Chitosan finds various industrial applications like biotechnology, food processing, pharmacy, and medicine.
- Boiler chicks diet with chitin was found to improve the feed efficiency, resulting in about 10-12% weight gain in the birds compared to a chitin free diet
The export price for two varieties of fishes is given in the table:
The government of India has increased the budget of Agricultural Education by 47.4% in 2017-18 as compared to the financial year 2013-14.
Recognizing the immense potential of North- Eastern India, six new colleges have been opened by the Government under the Central Agricultural University. This has resulted in the increase in the number of agricultural colleges in North East India by more than 85 percent in the last two years and the number of total colleges has gone up to 13.
The National Food Security Mission (NFSM), National Horticulture Mission (NHM) and National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP) are being implemented to ensure food and nutritional security in the country.
The Government has merged all the schemes of fisheries sector into an umbrella scheme of Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries and approved with an outlay of USD 428.57 million (Rs. 3000 crores).
Blue Revolution is focusing to foster the use of new and modern technology, training and capacity building of fishers and fish farmers, adoption of scientific advices & methods, species diversification and proper fish health management etc. The main aim of Government is to double the income of fishers and fish-farmers by 2022 through the implementation of “Blue Revolution”.
The aim of this initiative is to increase fish production to 15 million tonnes by 2020.
Marine fisheries have the production capacity of 4.5 million tones when all the resources are optimally utilized. Currently, around 3-4 million tonnes is produced by this segment. Thus, the Blue revolution will emphasize Aquaculture to meet the targeted production. The government has put aside USD 418.56 million budget to meet the goal.
The financial assistance for the housing of fishermen has been increased from USD 1065.64 (Rs. 0.75 lakh) to USD 1705.02 (Rs.1.20 lakh) in General States and USD 1,847.10 (Rs.1.30 lakh) for the North Eastern and Hilly States under the Welfare Scheme for Fishermen. Fishermen Housing Scheme has been merged with the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) Scheme.
The government of India has taken an important step in 2017 by adding a new component under the Blue Revolution to promote tradition fishers in the Deep Sea Fishing. Under the said component, the Government of India is providing 50% financial assistance i.e., up to USD 56,834 (Rs.40 lakh) to the traditional fishers, their Self Help Groups, Societies, and Organizations in acquisition of deep sea fishing vessels equipped with modern technology, which costs approximately USD 113,668 (Rs.80 lakh) per vessel.
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has also approved the setting up of a dedicated Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF) worth USD 1.07 billion in 2018 to fill the large infrastructure gaps in fisheries sector in the country through developing infrastructure projects such as fishing harbours/ fish landing centres, fish seed farms, fish feed mills/plants, setting up of disease diagnostic and aquatic quarantine facilities, creation of cold chain infrastructure facilities such as ice plants, cold storage, fish transport facilities, fish processing units, fish markets, etc.
The Marine Fishing Regulation Act
Some of the agencies like Coastal Aquaculture Authority (CAA), and Department of Fisheries and Local Administration in different States and Union Territories, Ministry of Environment and Forest and Ministry of Agriculture have guidelines for aquaculture.
Market Size and Forecast
Global aquaculture harvests continue to grow at a consistent rate of 4–5 percent yearly. Fish supply witnessed a 36 percent increase in Indian export revenue in 2017. In 2016, the export has gone up by just 14 percent. These growth figures reflect the effects of rapid growth in Indian farmed shrimp production.
India contributes 6.3% of the total global aquaculture production and ranks 2nd after China. The Indian Fisheries and Aquaculture Industry are valued at about USD 15 billion. The industry is also one of the substantial foreign exchange earners and accounted for 2% of the total export earnings of India in the last four years (FY14 – FY17).
Globally, 175.2 million tonnes of fishes were produced. Captured fishes constitute 52% of the total production while fishes produced by aquaculture represent 48% share of total output.
- Export of frozen fish stood at 279,642 Metric Tonnes during the first eleven months of 2017-18 as against 250,465 Metric Tonnes for the previous year’s same period showing a growth of 11.65% in quantity and 3.93% in terms of the dollar.
- In 2017, India production volume of shrimp represented 16% of the world’s output. India produced 31% more shrimp in 2017 comparing the output in the previous year.
- The decrease in the anti-dumping tariff on Indian shrimp and its increased market acceptance led to a significant increase in shrimp supply from India around 39 percent at 5, 74, 200 tonnes in 2017.
Frozen shrimp continued as the top export item of marine products basket, with a share of 42.05% in quantity and 69.95% of the total earnings in dollar terms. The shrimp import by the USA represents 38.3% of total exports in 2017, followed by Viet Nam, which imports 27% of India’s shrimps.
Roughly 52% of the fishes are exported while the remaining 48% is consumed in the Indian market.
India exported 13, 77,244 Metric Tonnes of seafood valued at USD 7, 082 million during the first 10 months of 2017-18 as against 11, 34, 948 Metric Tonnes and USD 5, 777 million in volume and value terms respectively during the same period in 2016-17.
Exports were valued at USD 5.64 billion during April 2017-January 2018 as compared to USD 4.98 billion during the same period in the previous years.
- The market is projected to reach USD 25.39 billion by 2023 growing at a CAGR of 10.23%.
- By 2019-2020, 15 million metric tonnes of fish will be produced from both marine and aquaculture fisheries growing at 8% annually. In 2018-19 production will total 12 million tonnes.
- Shrimp production is estimated to 1 million tonnes in 2021. Indian fish industry forecasts shrimp production to rise around 670,000 tonnes in 2018, then about 774, 000 in 2019.
- India exported frozen shrimp of USD 2.90 billion in 2016-17.
- In 2019, the shrimp production is forecasted to reach USD 4.3 billion and thereafter USD 5.1 billion in 2020. In 2021, shrimp production will reach USD 5.9 billion.
Distribution Chain Analysis
Broodstock production: There are various sources of Broodstock: (a) naturally grown sea-caught and spawned, (b) cultured-harvested from ponds, then on-grown for 2-3 months before transferring to maturation facilities and (c) purchased from tank-reared Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF)/Specific-Pathogen Resistant (SPR) Broodstock from other countries.
Hatchery: Broodstock is procured by hatcheries and stocked in maturation facilities where they are grown and spawned.
Cultivation, harvesting and storing: The fishery farmers design and construct a suitable pond according to the characteristics of the selected site and culture system and maintain the water quality suitable for the selected breed.
The cultivation to harvest takes 7-8 months time period with good quality seed stocking and availability of all the required nutrients in the feeds, which constitutes 60%-70% of the total variable cost of farming. As per best practices, the cropping is halted for 40-45 days after one cropping to make the ponds ready for next cropping. Generally, the farmers are able to crop twice a year. As the cold storage involves high cost, the cold storage chains act as a commissioning agent who procures the entire harvest and stores it for up to one year to supply to the processors or wholesalers in the local market.
Processors/Exporters: The processors procure the fishes, either directly from the farmers or from the agents, depending on the location, availability, and pricing of the fish. Farmers have lower bargaining power as they lack the cold storage.
Due to seasonality in cropping, the processors procures large quantum of harvest during the harvesting seasons which increases the inventory and working capital requirements. The fish processors are equipped with the advanced cold storages in their facilities capacity ranging between of 1,000 Metric Tonne (MT) and 10,000 MT where the processed fishes can be stored for up to 1 year, using Individual Quick Freezing (IQF) process, freezing the product at -27 degrees centigrade.
Though the IQF process requires large capex, it is a more efficient approach than the earlier block freezing where customers were forced to buy the product in bulk. The entire processing, freezing, and packaging take maximum 7 days when it would be ready to be shipped from the port. The transportation from farmers to processing units to ports requires insulated vans where the temperature needs to be maintained at -18 degrees centigrade.
Fish production and export industry is highly fragmented with 1,212 marine product exporters operating in India. The products include chilled, dried, frozen, and non-edible sea fishes. A few companies such as Avanti Foods, Apex Frozen Foods, Anand Foods, etc. are among the top listed companies.
Key Market Players
It produces Prawn and Fish packaged food in collaboration with Thai Union Feed Mill Co. Ltd. Its main products are prawn feed, scampi feed, and fish feed. The company’s market capitalization stands USD 629.37 million. The company made USD 306.26 million in revenue in 2017.
It was started in 1987 and since then exporting a wide range of frozen seafood across America, Europe, and Asia. The company generated USD 73 million in revenue in 2017. The company has filed for USD 418 million IPO with SEBI in 2017.
Devi Sea Foods
Its main business is export of shrimp from India to the rest of the world. The company has core competencies having own processing plant, aquaculture farms, and shrimp hatchery. The company has got approval from SEBI for its IPO offering of USD 125 million.
Nekkanti Sea Foods Limited
It has started the business in 1985. It produces and exports frozen shrimp products under the various brand names such as Nekkanti, Akasaka Star. The company mainly exports to USA and Europe. Its market capitalization is USD 115 million listed in SEBI through IPO, the Indian security exchange board.
Apex Frozen Foods Limited
The company made revenue of USD 84 million in 2016 with a growth rate of 33.53% from the previous year. It produces and exports white shrimp and Black Tiger shrimp. The processing plant located in Kakinada has a capacity of approximately 9,240 metric tonnes per annum while another processing plant in Baptla has 3,000 metric tonnes of capacity. The company went public in 2017 offering USD 21 million IPO. In 2017, it made revenue of USD 97 million.
It is an aquaculture company that has 1500 tonnes of shrimp production capacity. It produces mainly Tiger Shrimp and Vannamei Shrimp. The company is located in Gujarat. The company has issue IPO of USD 1 million in 2016.
The growth of the Indian fishery industry lies in the development new of aquaculture fishing as the captured fishing is almost fully utilized to the extent of available resources. The development of new fisheries could be initiated strategically in Andhra Pradesh and for shrimp, brackish water aquaculture has greater potential in the region of West Bengal and Gujarat. Shrimp harvesting is a lucrative business in the sub-segment.
Vannamei shrimp has been rapidly commercialized in India. Shrimp export constitutes around 40% of total export in 2017. This has led many players to set up seafood processing units, feed manufacturing facility and cold storage warehouses in the value chain. New business opportunities are still there for feeding industry, processing equipment business, and quality testing equipment and inspection since many exporters are fined for not meeting the standards set by other countries particularly the USA and Europe.
Training and awareness campaigns will be needed to meet the goal of Blue Water Vision in 2020. The industry is not able to deploy high-tech production techniques, it might be because of price concern and the business and environmental circumstances.
- Agricultural Situation in India, Directorate of Economics and Statistics Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare Government of India, 2018
- Indian Shrimp Industry: A Primer, Care Ratings, 2017
- GlobeFish Highlights, FAO, 2018
- Fishmeal and fish oil facts and figures, SeaFish, 2018