- 1 Introduction
- 2 Literature Review
- 3 Methodology
- 4 Results and Interpretation
- 5 Descriptive Analysis
- 6 Inferential Analysis
- 7 Hypothesis Assessment Summary
- 8 References
- 9 Appendix A
- 10 Appendix B
Shakespeare once wrote: "If music be the food of love, play on...” Profound words, true, but the Bard failed to mention that music is not just nourishment for the heart, but also for the soul.
The origin of music itself is unknown, but the use of music in healing ceremonies is an ancient practice. It is believe that among primitive people; illness was viewed as originating from magic-religious forces, or forms the breaking of taboos. Thus, music in combination with dances or words, along with songs, and the music producing instruments were considered to be efficacious in exorcising disease or healing wounds. In classical antiquity, disease was viewed as an imbalance in harmony between a personas physical and psychical nature.
Music, in this case, was believed to have divine significance, and thus, extremely important for restoring harmony and heath. In the middle Ages, disease was still seen as a punishment and a result of sinful doing. Hence, the mentally ill were considered to be possessed by evil spirits; leading to cruel torment and exorcised, and murder of thousands of men and women. For instance, in Europe, thousands of mentally ill men and women were killed because their hallucinations or delusions were interpreted as a "possession by the devil”.
By the end of the 18th century, scientists began to investigate the effects of music on the human body. It was during this time that the effect of music on function such as cardiac output, respiratory rate, pulse rate, circulation, blood pressure, on electrical conduction of tissues, on fatigue-ness , and on general vibratory effects on the body was initiated.
By the end of the 19th century, a growing number of researchers started to study the effect of music systematically. Researchers also began looking for relationships between music and physiological or psychological responses. The relationship between music and emotion became a hot topic for lab researches. Hence, music became the emotional reflection of the composer. The utilization of Dissonance and rhythmic irregularity of music accelerated into the 20th century.
The development of music therapy as a profession is believed to be a hospital-developed practice that originated in psychiatric hospitals. Much of the contribution to its popularity and establishment originated from wars. Wars are considered to have had a big influence to both bringing in mental illness to the fore, and in establishing strategies for treating the problem. For instances, the civil war help create the field of neurology, which advanced our understanding of brain diseases; World War I, led to the acceptance of psychiatry as an integral part of medical treatment; World War II lead to the development of large-scale screening techniques, group therapy, and increase use of music in hospitals.
By the 1930’s music therapy has taken a new aim; to modify moods, as well as destructive or immoderate physical activity on the open ward. When the development of tranquilizer became available in the 1950’s, it became possible to utilize therapeutic strategies to meet the psychological needs of patients. Furthermore, it was report by Gaston in 1968, that the most commonly shared goals reported by music therapists were: 1) The establishment or re-establishment of interpersonal relationships; 2) The bringing about of self-esteem through self-actualization.
At about the time of World War II, the role of music in healing advanced to new heights. As wounded soldiers filled hospital beds, doctors noted that music did more than provided a morale-booster; it greatly enhanced the recovery process. Music was then incorporated into the Army’s Reconditioning Program, which uses music for physical reconditioning, educational reconditioning, and occupational reconditioning program, which was under the direct supervision of medical personnel. This became the first official recognition of music as a therapeutic means to be used in military hospitals in assisting the sick and injured during recovery .Toward the end of World War II, musicians were assigned to military hospitals to work directly with patients and it was during this time period that led to the establishment of the music therapy profession. Given the overview of how music therapy came to be, we are now ready to look specifically at how music is used in medical settings as a means of reducing pain.
Music is widely used to enhance well-being, reduce stress, and distract patients from unpleasant symptoms. Although there are wide variations in individual preferences, music appears to exert direct physiologic effects through the autonomic nervous system. It also has indirect effects by modifying caregiver behavior. Music effectively reduces anxiety and improves mood for medical and surgical patients, for patients in intensive care units and patients undergoing procedures, and for children as well as adults. Music is a low-cost intervention that often reduces surgical, procedural, acute, and chronic pain. Music also improves the quality of life for patients receiving palliative care, enhancing a sense of comfort and relaxation. Providing music to caregivers may be a cost-effective and enjoyable strategy to improve empathy, compassion, and relationship-centered care while not increasing errors or interfering with technical aspects of care. Music Therapy integrates music and all of its elements and delivers it through a therapeutic protocol to provide healing of mind, body, emotion and spirit. Music, by its very nature, embodies creative, emotional, structural and nonverbal language. A trained music therapist uses this technique to initiate contact with the client and to help foster a relationship that will allow the client to gain self-awareness, personal development and self-expression through communication and knowledge.
Music therapy can systematically address addictive/dependency disorders, brain injury, emotional intimacy, music assisted childbirth, neurological impairments, pain management, physical limitations, reality orientation, self awareness, self expression, speech and hearing impairments, stress reduction, etc. Music therapists use music to assess cognitive skills, communication abilities, emotional well-being, motor skills, physical health, social development, and spiritual enhancement through musical responses. Interventions may include active music making, music improvisation, drumming, receptive music listening, song writing, lyric discussion, music and imagery, music performance, and learning through music. Music is processed by the emotions, through mental imagery, intuitively, analytically, and physically. Music is immediate, always changing and moving, encouraging the listener to be present and mindful of what is taking place.
By listening and responding to these energy patterns a person gains insight into one’s own energy patterns. The main priority in music therapy is to address the individual’s needs and problems through music, not to promote or perpetuate music as an art form for its own sake. Within music therapy, the behaviors of primary interest are those that have a significant effect on the person’s adaptation, education, or development. Music in this context is used to increase, decrease, modify, or reinforce carefully defined target behaviors.
Music therapists assess for quantitative and qualitative information relevant to the client’s needs; develop music therapy strategies to address short and long-term goals and objectives; provide evidence-based music therapy strategies and interventions to address identified goals and objectives; collect, compile, and document data relevant to client responses and progress, utilizing the findings to make decisions about music therapy services.
As no two humans are alike, no two psyches will respond to music in the same way. This creates the need for multiple musical genres and interventions to address the psyche’s varied needs. The ability to make music is innate, meaning that all people are musical, rhythmic beings as evidenced by the basic life affirming rhythms of one’s heartbeat, speech, and gait. Playing one’s heartbeat on a drum, for example, enlivens the person’s sense of self, creating an outward expression of what is within as well as grounding the individual to the moment and providing an opportunity for self expression. Music therapy is non-invasive and has no side effects. Services range from working with new born babies to end of life care.
Music has a vast influence over the nations and peoples on this planet. It has been used in every culture, and is often connected with anxiolytic and analgesic properties. Today it is used in many hospitals to help patients relax and help relieve or ease pain, confusion and anxiety. Music is also commonly used in counseling. Music therapy techniques may include guided listening or improvisational playing and are used within the context of many theories, and for many types of mental disorders, from depression to schizophrenia.
Many of the healing qualities of music in counseling are connected to its use as a nonverbal medium for communication. Music is read differently in the brain than nonmusical tones and is connected to many different areas of the brain. Learning music relegates a larger part of the brain to recognizing and interpreting music. Listening to music has also been found to have an effect on learning.
After the Second World War music therapy was intensively developed in American hospitals. Since then some hospitals, particularly in mainland Europe, have incorporated music therapy within their practice carrying on a tradition of European hospital based research and practice. The nursing profession has seen the value of music therapy, particularly in the United States of America, and championed its use as an important nursing intervention even when music therapists are not available. Indeed, it is a clinical nurse specialist has made an overview of fourteen articles on audio analgesia. She reports a confusing picture of changes related to heart rate but a clearer picture emerges on physiological parameters related to pain and anxiety and she concludes that music has no adverse effects on ill patients when used as an adjunctive non-invasive therapy.
Throughout history, man has created and listened to music for many purposes. King Saul sent for David to play the harp when his mind and soul were troubled. Music has served to express emotions such as joy or sorrow, and has done so very effectively. Music has been a tool of communication in this way, helping one man to understand another and providing a medium of interconnection.
Every known society throughout history has had some form of music. Humans were already playing such complex instruments as bone flutes, jaw harps and percussive instruments long ago in the earliest civilizations .Music has been perceived to have transcendental qualities, and has thus been used pervasively within forms of religious worship. Music is a unique gift to and from each person who creates it. It reveals vast quantities of information about the performer, from their mood swings to biochemistry, ilmer rhythms of organs, and even the way they are physically built.
Music is an ever-changing, ever-increasing gift from God, free and available to all who seek it and many who do not. As such, it is naturally endowed with the ability to affect those who listen in monumental ways.
Music therapy in the United States of America began in the late 18th century. However, using music as a healing medium dates back to ancient times. This is evident in biblical scriptures and historical writings of ancient civilizations such as Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome. Today, the power of music remains the same but music is used much differently than it was in ancient times.
The profession of music therapy in the United States began to develop during W.W.I and W.W. II, when music was used in Veterans Administration Hospitals as an intervention to address traumatic war injuries. Veterans actively and passively engaged in music activities that focused on relieving pain perception. Numerous doctors and nurses witnessed the effect music had on veterans' psychological, physiological, cognitive, and emotional state.
Since then, colleges and universities developed programs to train musicians how to use music for therapeutic purposes. In 1950 a professional organization was formed by a collaboration of music therapists that worked with veterans, mentally retarded, hearing/visually impaired, and psychiatric populations. This was the birth of the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT). In 1998, NAMT joined forces with another music therapy organization to become what is now known as the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA).
- To examine the point of views regarding music from stressed people and non stressed people.
- Effects of music on the human psyche in every mood.
Scope of Study
We are doing this research in Pakistan and in Pakistan we will focus on some areas of Karachi only and from people of different walks of life. We have taken this research through questionnaire and these are filled by students , office workers and housewives’ because as music gives relaxation to mind so these are the people who suffer from pain , stress and tension every day so they are the experimental subjects of our research. We will also conduct our research from happy people to know their response as well.
Statement of Problem
- Does music therapy help people to release stress and tension?
- There is no positive effect of music therapy on human stress.
Throughout history, man has created and listened to music for many purposes. King Saul sent for David to play the harp when his mind and soul were troubled. Music has served to express emotions such as joy or sorrow, and has done so very effectively. Music has been a tool of communication in this way, helping one man to understand another and providing a medium of interconnection. Every known society throughout history has had some form of music. Humans were already playing such complex instruments as bone flutes, jaw harps and percussive instruments long ago in the earliest civilizations (Weinberger, 2004). Music has been perceived to have transcendental qualities, and has thus been used pervasively within forms of religious worship (Lefevre,2004).
Music is a unique gift to and from each person who creates it. It reveals vast quantities of information about the performer, from their mood swings to biochemistry, ilmer rhythms of organs, and even the way they are physically built (Perrett, 2004).
Music is an ever-changing, ever-increasing gift from God, free and available to all who seek it and many who do not. As such, it is naturally endowed with the ability to affect those who listen in monumental ways.
Music for Healing Music has been associated with physical and emotional healing throughout history. The ancient Greeks assigned the god Apollo to reign over both music and healing (Trehan, 2004). Ancient shamanic curative rituals used rhythmically repetitive music to facilitate trance induction (Lefevre, 2004)
Aristotle and Plato both prescribed music to debilitated individuals. Plato prescribed both music and dancing for the fearful and anxious, while Aristotle spoke of the power of music to restore health and normalcy to those who suffer from uncontrollable emotions and compared it to a medical treatment (Gallant & Holosko, 1997).
Physiologically, music has a distinct effect on many biological processes. It inhibits the occurrence of fatigue, as well as changes the pulse and respiration rates, external blood pressure levels, and psychogalvanic effect (Meyer, 1956). However, music is not limited to changing the body's responses in only one direction. The nature of the music influences the change as well. Pitch, tempo, and melodic pattern all influence music's effect on mood and physical processes. For instance, high pitch, acceleration of rhythm, and ascending melodic passages are all generally felt to increase anxiety and tension and sometimes even lead to loss of control and panic (Lefevre, 2004).
The makers of arcade and video games commonly exploit this effect by increasing tempo and pitch on ascending melodies during a time of high pressure and necessity of precision in performance to succeed. Inversely, music with low pitch generally produces a calming effect. Slow tempos and descending melodies often cause feelings of sadness and depression. Some explain this effect on the body by comparing the music to a mirror of the body's motor responses. When a person feels depressed he moves slowly, while when he is anxious his heart and respiration rates race (Lefevre, 2004).
Furthermore, music has been found to produce a relaxed mood and stress reduction, making it a plausible way to accommodate coping with pain and anxiety (Hendricks, Robinson, Bradley & Davis, 1999).
Music and medicine. Music has been put to use in hospitals, nursing homes, and many other places where stress levels rise. In fact, a Norwegian study displayed a higher affinity for music in medical students than other university graduates (Trehan, 2004). At least 18% of the medical graduates studied played one or more instruments regularly. Medical students are well known for experiencing very high stress levels, so it is natural that they would be more accustomed to engaging in more stress-relieving activities, and sharing such activities with their patients. The modem use of music therapy in hospitals developed during the 1950s in Europe and the United States. Many physicians began to use a multidisciplinary approach to medicine and, recognizing the soothing effect of music, provided music therapy to patients who were thought to have an interest in music (Lefevre, 2004).
Studies have found that music is effective in decreasing stress preoperatively, postoperatively, and generally for the patient and the family members and friends. Patients who listened to music while waiting for surgery subjectively reported lower anxiety and also displayed lower blood pressure and pulse rates than those who did not. Generally, persons who listened to music during a hospital stay displayed lower anxiety scores than those who did not. Postoperative patients have pointed out the comforting aspect of music, and described a greater sense of control of their surroundings (McCaffrey & Locsin, 2004). Music is even effective in antenatal clinics. Hearing live performances of music significantly increased the number of accelerations in the fetal heartbeat, signaling good health (Art and Music, 2004). Infants as young as two months incline their attention toward pleasant consonant sounds and away from unpleasant dissonant sounds (Weinberger, 2004).
Music for the elderly. The elderly benefit especially from postoperative music. Many elderly patients experience severe confusion or delirium during postoperative recovery, but postoperative music has been proven to lessen such cases. Music has displayed an effect of significant decrease in physiological stress indicators, and study participants have described lessened and more manageable or even absent pain in the presence of music (McCaffrey & Locsin, 2004).
Music therapy has been incorporated into numerous different residential and adult day care centers (Hendricks, Robinson, Bradley, & Davis, 1999). The therapy has had a significant effect on reducing aggression and agitation among residents (McCaffrey & Locsin, 2004).
Music has also found a venue in the palliative care setting. Patients and family members listening to music have displayed improvements in pain, anxiety, grief, and unresolved issues and concerns. These changes have been less stressful and intrusive than other forms of therapy (Therapy, 2004). Many feel that appropriate music used in the palliative care setting can have analgesic, anxiolytic, antiemetic and sleep-inducing effects (Trehan, 2004).
Music for adolescents. The power music has to change emotions and elevate or depress mood is a key sign that it would be an effective tool to use in counseling mood disorders. Adolescents, especially, are susceptible to the effects of music. The type of music adolescents listen to can be a predictor of their behavior (Hendricks, et aI., 1999). Those who listen to heavy metal and rap have higher rates of delinquent activity, such as drug and alcohol use, poor school grades, arrest, sexual activity, and behavior problems than those who prefer other types. They are also more likely to be depressed, think suicidal thoughts, inflict self-harm, and to have dysfunctional families. Considering how music choice is reflective of behavioral patterns in adolescents, and also considering how music has the power to evoke mood changes in its listeners, it is logical to hypothesize that techniques incorporating music into clinical therapy would be effective and beneficial.
Music for Mental Disease The preface to systematic music therapy for mental disease patients is thought to have emerged in the early 1900s as a consolatory activity of musicians in mental hospitals (Hayashi, et aI., 2002). It has spread widely throughout the developed world after that first exploration. In 1990, the National Association for Music Therapy conducted a survey disclosing that music therapists serve in a variety of positions with many populations including mental illness, developmentally disabled, elderly persons, and those with multiple disabilities included addicted persons (Gallant & Holosko, 1997).
Among children, music therapy was most effective for those who had mixed diagnoses. It also seemed extraordinarily helpful for children who had developmental or behavior problems, while those with emotional problems showed smaller gains. These findings may be due in part to a greater emphasis placed on overt behavior changes than subjective measures of experiences (Gold, Voracek & Wigram, 2004).
Music as communication. Music is a form of communication, although it does not employ linguistic symbols or signs. It is considered to be a closed system because it does not refer to objects or concepts outside of the realm of music. This sets music apart from other art forms and sciences. Mathematics is another closed system, but falls short of music in that it communicates only intellectual meanings whereas music also conveys emotional and aesthetic meanings. These meanings, however, are not universal, as comparative musicologists have discovered (Meyer, 1956). In fact, although musical meanings do not seem to be common across cultures, the elements of music such as pitch and rhythm are regarded across cultures as abstract and enigmatic symbols that are then associated with intrinsic meaning according to the knowledge base of musical style and experience a person or culture has gained (Lefevre, 2004).
Music is a true communication form. A 1990 study found that 80% of adults surveyed described experiencing physical responses to music, such as laughter, tears, and thrills. A 1995 study also revealed that 70% of young adults claimed to enjoy benefits for the emotions evoked by it (Panksepp & Bernatzky, 2002). A further Shldy performed at Cornell University in 1997 measured physiological responses of subjects listening to several different pieces of music that were generally thought to convey certain emotions (Krumhansl, 1997). Each subject consistently matched his or her physiological response with the expected emotion of the music. When a person experiences thrills while listening to music, the same pleasure centers of the brain are activated as if they were eating chocolate, having sex or taking cocaine (Blood & Zatorre, 2001).
Music therapy. The use of musical interaction as a form of communication suggests it would be a useful technique in therapy for patients who are not accessible through verbal language (Gold, et aI., 2004). Individuals who have difficulty fading words to express emotions are often said to have alexithymia. Music therapy is an effective tool in reaching these individuals by helping them to feel understood and validated by means other than verbal expression (Bright, 1999). Music therapy is also especially helpful for those who have more general speech and communication difficulties (Lefevre, 2004).
Psychodynamic music therapy can be divided into two major models. Each model contains a focus on active or receptive music therapy techniques and improvisational or structured techniques (Gold, et aI., 2004). The Psychodynamic models focus on stirring up primitive emotions hidden in the subconscious id, sublimating certain emotions for the superego, and helping the ego find a sense of purpose. Music is often used to evoke catharsis by bringing up repressed emotions. Naturally, individuals have a tendency to place learned emphasis on what they hear, mirroring their own emotions in the music that they hear. In child therapy, transference can be expressed through the songs a child may recall during a session. These songs often reflect issues the child has dealt with as well as Ulmamable feelings toward the worker. Creating and performing music allows children to capture forbidden and repressed feelings in a symbolic form that is acceptable to be expressed and released. This is especially effective for young children who often do not have an extensive vocabulary to find well-fitting words for their feelings and thoughts (Lefevre, 2004).
Psychodynamic music therapy can be divided into two major models. The first is Analytical Music Therapy (AMT). AMT uses free improvisation to express imler moods and emotions. The other major therapy is Guided Imagery and Music (GIM). GIM involves listening to carefully chosen recorded music and reflecting on it. Both models focus on verbal reflections after the music therapy has been performed (Gold, et aI., 2004).
The humanistic approach to music therapy models would tend to refrain from guiding the client in interpretation of their emotions, but simply support and affirm the client in his or her improvisation, believing that the client's psyche knows best how to help itself (Lefevre, 2004). Humanistic models are influenced by Carl Rogers' client centered therapy and Perls' Gestalt therapy. The main tenets of the therapy are to emphasize the present and encourage awareness of present emotions. Two major humanistic models of music therapy include Creative Music Therapy and Orff Music Therapy. Both are active models and use improvisation but are more structured than psychodynamic models (Gold, et aI., 2004).
The biomedical approach often incorporates guided musical listening into its therapy (Lefevre, 2004). The behavioral model uses music in various forms as a contingent reinforcement or stimulus. This model is based on B. F. Skinner's therapy. The reinforcement may consist of playing, singing, or listening to music and the change effected is overt behavior (Gold, et aI., 2004). Singing works well as a reinforcement because it is a self-affirming, self-expressive pursuit (Lefevre, 2004).
Clinicians found that the contingent use of music strongly reinforced appropriate social behavior (Hooper, 2002). Finally, the eclectic model incorporates ideas and techniques from many different theories to use when appropriate (Gold, et aI., 2004).
Music therapy is given to children and adolescents with psychopathologies in many countries. Studies have shown that music therapy has a moderate positive effect for these patients and is more effective for some pathologies and in some models than others. The eclectic, psychodynamic and humanistic models were more beneficial to patients than the behavioral models. Children and adolescents suffering from behavioral and developmental disorders received a more positive effect than those suffering from emotional disorders.
There are many possible reasons for the previous finding. Children who have behavioral or developmental disorders often have trouble focusing and sustaining attention and music therapy provides them with active music making to help their kinetic learning styles. Music therapy also provides an environment that is Nonjudgmental and noninvasive, helping them to be comfortable enough to show Capacities they may repress in other circumstances. Music making is also often a highly intrinsically motivational factor for many children (Gold, et al., 2004).
Music therapy can also help children with learning disabilities develop social skills, which facilitates mainstreaming them (Hooper, 2002). Adding music to traditional models of psychotherapy proved to decrease depression symptoms significantly more effectively than the therapy alone. Adolescents participating in ten weeks of therapy using music had significantly lower posttest symptoms than pretest (Hendricks, et aI., 1999).
Gallant and Holosko (1997), psychologists working with addictive patients, see music as a catalyst for transcending many dimensions of a person's life such as the cognitive, affective, behavioral, social and spiritual. These practitioners also point out the ability of music to reach beyond usual methods to help patients become "unstuck" at issues they have difficulty confronting.
Schizophrenic patients tend to view music as attractive and often are relaxed in its presence. A study performed on older female schizophrenic patients participating in a IS-session music therapy program revealed a significant improvement of their negative symptoms. The patients displayed some signs of improved personal relations, and an improved subjective sense of participation in a chorus activity. However, the study suggested the improvements were only temporary, as the patients exhibited a decline in a follow up segment (Hayashi, et aI., 2002).
Music and the Brain It seems very unlikely that the actual sound waves created by the music played have a physical impact on any physical system in the body, such as the nervous system feeling pain, the respiratory system, blood pressure, pulse rate, as well as the emotions and thoughts. How, then, can music have any effect at all on such things? The effect must be mental, leading one's focus to the center of mental activity, the brain. Neuromusicology is a term used to describe the study of the relation between the human nervous system and the ways people interact with music (Roehmann, 1991).
Normal sounds, such as the tones heard in music proceed into your body through a marked path. They begin as sound waves enter the cochlea (inner ear). The function of the cochlea is to sort complex sounds into their elementary frequencies, and then transmit them to the auditory cortex as trains of neural discharges via separately tuned fibers of the auditory nerve. The auditory cortex is in the temporal lobe. Here specialized cells respond to certain frequencies. Neighboring cells have overlapping tuning curves to prevent gaps in the system. However, the brain's response to music is more complex.
Instead of interpreting each tone individually, the brain groups the sequences of tones together and identifies the relationships between the sounds. This involves many more areas of the brain than those aforementioned (Weinberger, 2004). As Gestalt psychologists have shown, understanding complexities is a more difficult matter than identifying multitudes of single stimuli, or musical tones in isolation, but must group the stimuli together into patterns and interpret how the patterns relate to one another (Meyer, 1956).
Music centers in the brain. Studies comparing patients with brain injuries and healthy individuals have discovered a lack of one centralized area for music perception in the brain. Instead, music activates many areas throughout the brain. Several of these areas are also involved in other types of cognition. Music activates slightly different areas in each individual's brain, contingent on experience and musical training or lack thereof (Weinberger, 2004). In recent times, neuroscience has discovered activations in at least 18 areas of the brain during performance of specific tasks in making or hearing music (Perrett, 2004).
Aniruddh D. Patel (1998) of the Neurosciences Institute in San Diego recorded findings that a specific region in the frontal lobe of the brain is employed in both constructing language and music, while other parts of the brain handle related facets of language and music processing. Having already established music's propensity as a form of communication, neurologists and musicologists may well assume the brain handles language and music together. However, other studies have shown music and language are easily distinguishable in the brain.
Case studies. The Russian composer Vissarion Shebalin constitutes an excellent case study to highlight this discovery. Shebalin suffered a stroke in 1953 resulting in the loss of his language capacities, more specifically the abilities to speak and understand speech. However, his music writing skills were unaffected and She balin continued to compose music until his death in 1963 (Weinberger, 2004). An additional useful study reveals that Alzheimer's patients recall words to familiar songs much better than spoken words or information. In fact, they tend to recall words from songs about 62% of the time, while they only remember spoken material about 37% of the time (McCaffrey & Locsin, 2004).
A second useful case study involves a woman known as LR. who suffered bilateral damage to her temporal lobes including the auditory cortical regions. Her intelligence quotient and language abilities were unaffected, but she could not recognize any previously known music, nor could she learn to recognize new music. She could not distinguish between any two melodies regardless of how different or varied they are. However, her body still reacted physiologically to match emotions from hearing different types of music. This study confirms that many parts of the brain are used in the perception and comprehension of music (Weinberger, 2004).
Focus areas for aspects of music. Different aspects of music have different focus areas of the brain as well. Imaging studies of the cerebral cortex revealed a focus of activation in the auditory regions of the right temporal lobe while subjects focused on the harmony of the music. The high activation area for timbre is also located on the right temporal lobe (Weinberger, 2004).
Consonant and dissonant chords activate different brain regions as well. Consonant chords focus the activation on the orbit frontal area of the right hemisphere and part of an area below the corpus callosum. The orbitofrontal region is part of the reward system of the brain. Dissonant chords activate the right parahippocampal gyrus (Blood & Zatorre, 2004). Combining consonant and dissonant chords in sequences creates patterns that help music reflect emotional experiences and contribute to music's effect on mood. The common names of two usual patterns are tension-resolution and tension-inhibition-resolution. These patterns are neurologically observable through brainwave patterns. Dissonant chords cause erratic and random neuron firing patterns while consonant chords cause even patterns (Lefevre, 2004).
Contour consists of the patterns of rising and falling pitches in music and is the cornerstone of all melodies. Changes in contour affect the intensity of the response of neuron firings in the auditory cortex. The neurons reacted differently when one tone was preceded by others or was played alone and also when the tone was part of an ascending or descending melody. The auditory cortex cells in guinea pigs also respond differently when the guinea pigs have been conditioned to respond to a tone by a mild shock than if they are unconditioned stimuli. This may help explain how a familiar melody such as a phone ringtone or a family member's whistle may catch a person's attention in a crowded, noisy room (Weinberger, 2004).
Replaying music in one's mind is quite as engaging as listening to the music the first time. Brain scans of two groups of nonmusicians who either listened to music or imagined hearing it showed activation in the same area of the brain (Zatorre & Halpern, 2005).
Musician brains. The brains of musicians differ in their neurological responses to music than those of nonmusicians. More of their brains are devoted to the perception and interpretation of music. Christo Pantev's 1998 study (as cited in Weinberger, 2004) found that musicians use 25% more of the auditory regions of the left hemisphere than nonmusicians while listening to a piano playing. This is only true for musical tones, and not for similar but nonmusical sounds. The age at which a student began lessons has been proven to be a stronger factor on the percentage of auditory cortex responding than the number of years he has been learning. In comparison, Peter Schneider's 2002 study at the University of Heidelberg in Germany (as cited in Weinberger, 2004) found that the actual volume of the auditory cortex in musicians was 130% larger than that of non musicians. In this study, size was correlated to levels of musical training, implying that learning music increases the amount of brain tissue devoted to it.
Music learning in the brain. Studies have shown that there is a critical development period for music development in the brain. Musicians that began to play before the age often activate different areas ofthe brain while playing than those who began playing after the age often (Ormrod, 2004).
Shahin, Roberts, and Trainor's 2004 study performed at the University of Ontario (as cited in Weinberger, 2004) recorded brain responses in four- and five-year-old children as they listened to piano, violin, and pure tones. Those children who had received more exposure to music at home showed greater brain activity than children three years older who had no such exposure.
Musicians also commonly exhibit hyper- development in the areas of the brain relating to the fmely tuned muscles used in playing their instrument (Weinberger, 2004). In fact, skilled musicians can be compared to skilled athletes, only on a small-muscle scale. They must be able to decipher the complex symbolic codes representing movement that comprise notation, move predominantly small muscles exactly and precisely, time their movements precisely, and add their own personal touch to the tone, timbre, volume increases and decreases, and every aspect that makes up musicality in musical performance (Roehmann, 1991).
In as much as musicians can be compared to athletes in their skills, they can also be compared to them in their afflictions. Professional musicians suffer from many ailments relating to the profession. Some of these include tendonitis, carpal tmmel syndrome, back pain, anxiety, vocal fatigue, overuse syndrome, and focal dystonia. Focal dystonia is a localized disturbance of skilled movement. It is usually task-specific and common to people in certain professions that involve moving hands and fingers in quick, nimble, precise ways for long time spans while focusing on a flow on information (Roehmann,1991).
Music and Intelligence
Now that music's effects on the human body in terms of physical health, emotions, and mental health have been considered, focus is shifted to the mental and intelligence aspects. One way music involvement may be beneficial to intelligence is by the changes it makes in your brain. One of the major music centers in the brain is part of the middle mammalian layer of the brain, which is also important in emotions. Developing the middle brain leads to better attention maintenance skills, memory, motivation, and critical thinking skills (Snyder, 1997). Music is also similar to math in that it has obvious rhythm and organization. The brain functions similarly to organize the two subjects (Whitaker, 1994).
One of the earlier studies involving music and intelligence was perfonned by Irving Hurwitz at Harvard in 1975. First-grade children were taught to read solfege, the sight-singing technique using "do, re, mi ... ", and then given reading tests. The children who had studied solfege score significantly higher than the control group who had not (Wilson, 2000).
Gordon Shaw completed a famous study in 1993 on a group of college students. He gave them three different IQ tests following three different activities. One activity involved listening to Mozart's, "Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major." Another activity was guided relaxation techniques and the third was no activity. Those who listened to Mozart scored an average of nine points higher on the IQ test. The effect on intelligence lasted only for ten or fifteen minutes. Shaw saw the music as a warm-up exercise for the areas of the brain that perform analysis and critical thinlcing. This discovery became known as the Mozart Effect (Rauscher & Shaw, 1998). Later, Shaw found in another study that preschoolers studying the keyboard achieve higher scores on math and science aptitude tests than the control group, equaling a 34% increase in their puzzle-solving skills (as cited in Wilson, 2000). A study was done dividing six-year-olds into four groups that took piano, singing, or drama lessons, or no lessons at all. Those that participated in piano or singing lessons showed an average increase in IQ of7.0 points at the end of the school year compared to an increase of 4.3 IQ points for those involved in drama or no lessons (Bower, 2004).
A 1991 study by Takashi Taniguchi at Kyoto University found that listening to sad background music aids in the memorization of negative facts, such as war and crime, while listing to cheerful music is facilitative in learning positive facts, such as discoveries and victories (as cited in Wilson, 2000).
Students with learning disabilities who listened to Baroque music while studying for and taking tests earned higher test scores than a control group who didn't (McCaffrey, Locsin, 2004).
Gordon Shaw did not believe that classical and baroque music were the only kinds of music that would increase intelligence, but he did place requirements on the type of music. To increase intelligence, the music needed to be complex, including many variations in rhythm, theme and tone. Music lacking in these qualities, especially highly repetitive music, may even detract from intelligence by distracting the brain from critical thinking (Whitaker, 1994). Although many studies have been done on the effects of classical music, many adolescents and young adults today are deeply infatuated with many other types of music. Adolescents often use music to facilitate coping with loneliness and stress (Hendricks, et aI., 1999).
The methodology that we have adopted for my research is Qualitative. The reason for adopting this particular methodology is that since our research involves human psychology and judgment and Qualitative research is used to analyze people’s behavior, attitudes, benefits and their experiences. This actually suits our research.
The methods that are most commonly used for collecting data in qualitative research are interviews, observations and focus groups. Questionnaires are also used for collection of data in qualitative research but they are not common as compared to the other methods. Among all the methods of collecting data in qualitative research, that we have adopted for our research is Questionnaires’. The reason for choosing this particular method is that our research focused on studying the effects of the factors of outsourcing which the organizations have. Therefore the questionnaires will help in achieving the research objectives.
Data was collected from 200 respondents. Our respondents were the students, housewives and the working people who deals with great stress on daily basis. An effective questionnaire was designed to conduct this survey which includes all the questions about the music therapy and its impacts. Our data represent the opinion of the people living in Karachi.
- Dependent variable is Human stress.
- Independent variable is Music therapy.
It is not possible for us to conduct our research from a huge population so we have conducted it from a sample, means a small group of people having different ages, people having different moods facing different problems of life.
As it is a Casual Research so we will apply Regression model.
Regression Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation N avg_humanstress 3.4250 .91551 200 avg_musictherapy 3.1912 .92799 200
Correlations avg_humanstress avg_musictherapy Pearson Correlation avg_humanstress 1.000 .629 avg_musictherapy .629 1.000 Sig. (1-tailed) avg_humanstress . .000 avg_musictherapy .000 . N avg_humanstress 200 200 avg_musictherapy 200 200
Variables Entered/Removedb Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 avg_musictherapya . Enter a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: avg_humanstress
Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .629a .396 .393 .71352 a. Predictors: (Constant), avg_musictherapy
ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 65.991 1 65.991 129.619 .000a Residual 100.804 198 .509 Total 166.795 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), avg_musictherapy b. Dependent Variable: avg_humanstress
Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) 1.445 .181 7.977 .000 avg_musictherapy .621 .055 .629 11.385 .000 1.000 1.000 a. Dependent Variable: avg_humanstress
Collinearity Diagnosticsa Model Dimension Eigenvalue Condition Index Variance Proportions (Constant) avg_musictherapy 1 1 1.960 1.000 .02 .02 2 .040 7.037 .98 .98 a. Dependent Variable: avg_humanstress
Results and Interpretation
Scale: ALL VARIABLES
Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 200 100.0 Excludeda 0 .0 Total 200 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.
Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .684 .685 4
Inter-Item Correlation Matrix therapy_eff motivation creativity healthy therapy_eff 1.000 .248 .400 .314 motivation .248 1.000 .345 .430 creativity .400 .345 1.000 .376 healthy .314 .430 .376 1.000
In order to assess the internal consistency of the research the Reliability test is conducted. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability statistics helps to examine is the number of individual items contains the same characteristics to explain the characteristics of constructs. If reliability is 0.7 or higher so the inter item correlation is strong. In our research the reliability of independent variable which is music therapy is 0.685.
Reliability Scale: ALL
Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 200 100.0 Excludeda 0 .0 Total 200 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.
Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .704 .707 5
Inter-Item Correlation Matrix rem_fr_stress anxiety bp memories slwmusic_slppill rem_fr_stress 1.000 .568 .487 .409 .234 anxiety .568 1.000 .387 .257 .242 bp .487 .387 1.000 .271 .187 memories .409 .257 .271 1.000 .217 slwmusic_slppill .234 .242 .187 .217 1.000 In order to assess the internal consistency of the research the Reliability test is conducted. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability statistics helps to examine is the number of individual items contains the same characteristics to explain the characteristics of constructs. If reliability is 0.7 or higher so the inter item correlation is strong. In our research the reliability of dependent variable which is human stress is 0.707.
T-TEST One-Sample Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean avg_musictherapy 200 3.1912 .92799 .06562 avg_humanstress 200 3.4250 .91551 .06474
One-Sample Test Test Value = 3 t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper avg_musictherapy 2.915 199 .004 .19125 .0619 .3206 avg_humanstress 6.565 199 .000 .42500 .2973 .5527 The overall music therapy variable(LESS THAN 0.01), it shows significance relation between music therapy and human stress. It means that music therapy has a positive impact on human stress. Overall model is significant as t-value is greater than 2 and sig-value is less than 0.01.
Hypothesis Assessment Summary
HYPOTHESIS t-VALUE p-VALUE RESULTS
As our alpha is 1% and our significant value is less than alpha therefore, our result is significant and we reject Ho.
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Disclaimer This article is prepared by the students of Bahria University Karachi Campus (BUKC) for a pure academic purpose. Our topic for this article is “THE IMPACTS OF MUSIC THERAPY ON HUMAN STRESS”. The views expressed in this report are those of the Authors and do not reflects anyone’s ideas or perceptions. This report is to be used for academic purpose.
Q3. What type of music you prefer to listen the most?
- Others (specify)
On a scale of 1-5 please respond to the following Q4. Does music therapy effect positively on human mind? Q5. Does music help to reduce blood pressure? Q6. Do you think music helps in keeping the creativity level higher? Q7. Do you think music is the tool to help body in staying (or becoming) healthy? Q8. Do you think music is the best remedy for stress? Q9. If you are in the state of anxiety, does music help you? Q10. Do you think music helps us to increase level of motivation to handle troubles? Q11. Do you think music helps to recall bad or good memories according to the mood? Q12. Do you think slow music works as a sleeping pill whenever you are suffering from headache?
Note: 1 indicates the lowest level of agreement and 5 indicates the highest level of agreement.
Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent avg_musictherapy * gender 200 100.0% 0 .0% 200 100.0% avg_humanstress * gender 200 100.0% 0 .0% 200 100.0%
avg_musictherapy * gender Crosstab Count gender Total 1 2 avg_musictherapy 1 4 2 6 1.25 0 3 3 1.5 0 4 4 1.75 3 3 6 2 6 5 11 2.25 3 7 10 2.5 4 5 9 2.75 7 7 14 3 3 21 24 3.25 12 7 19 3.5 11 16 27 3.75 10 10 20 4 7 14 21 4.25 3 4 7 4.5 2 5 7 4.75 3 5 8 5 3 1 4 Total 81 119 200
Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 24.123a 16 .087 Likelihood Ratio 27.818 16 .033 Linear-by-Linear Association .075 1 .785 N of Valid Cases 200 a. 19 cells (55.9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.22.
avg_humanstress * gender
Crosstab Count gender Total 1 2 avg_humanstress 1 4 1 5 1.4 1 0 1 1.6 1 2 3 1.8 1 4 5 2 4 5 9 2.2 2 4 6 2.4 4 0 4 2.6 2 6 8 2.8 2 8 10 3 6 8 14 3.2 3 5 8 3.4 5 13 18 3.6 7 18 25 3.8 7 4 11 4 12 13 25 4.2 6 8 14 4.4 5 13 18 4.6 2 5 7 4.8 2 1 3 5 5 1 6 Total 81 119 200
Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 27.241a 19 .099 Likelihood Ratio 29.503 19 .058 Linear-by-Linear Association .004 1 .947 N of Valid Cases 200 a. 25 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .41.
T-Test Group Statistics gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean avg_musictherapy male 81 3.2130 .95288 .10588 2 119 3.1765 .91443 .08383 avg_humanstress male 81 3.4198 1.02937 .11437 2 119 3.4286 .83373 .07643
Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper avg_musictherapy Equal variances assumed .022 .882 .272 198 .786 .03649 .13398 -.22773 .30071 Equal variances not assumed .270 167.191 .787 .03649 .13504 -.23012 .30310 avg_humanstress Equal variances assumed 4.236 .041 -.067 198 .947 -.00882 .13221 -.26953 .25190 Equal variances not assumed -.064 147.462 .949 -.00882 .13756 -.28066 .26303