Romania( Europe )

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The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 25 00 E
total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
225 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 37.73%
permanent crops: 1.86%
other: 60.41% (2011)
Irrigated land:
6,153 sq km (2007)
Total renewable water resources:
211.9 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic or industrial or agricultural):
total: 6.88 cu km/yr (22%/61%/17%)
per capita: 320.8 cu m/yr (2009)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment current issues:
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
People and Society
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups:
Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
21,729,871 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.6% (male 1,628,220/female 1,541,914)
15-24 years: 11.3% (male 1,258,746/female 1,197,681)
25-54 years: 45.7% (male 5,021,370/female 4,916,576)
55-64 years: 13% (male 1,320,781/female 1,508,878)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 1,346,864/female 1,988,841) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 43.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 21.9 %
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.8 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 41.4 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.29% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
9.27 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:
11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
urban population: 52.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: -0.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas population:
BUCHAREST (capital) 1.937 million (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 10.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.69 years
male: 71.23 years
female: 78.36 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.32 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
note: percent of women aged 15-49 (2005)
Health expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density:
2.39 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
6.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 87.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 12.3% of population (2008 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 87.9% of population
rural: 54.4% of population
total: 72.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 12.1% of population
rural: 45.6% of population
total: 27.9% of population (2008 est.)
HIV or AIDS adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS people living with HIV or AIDS:
16,000 (2009 est.)
HIV or AIDS deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity adult prevalence rate:
19.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.5% (2002)
Education expenditures:
4.2% of GDP (2009)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.7%
male: 98.3%
female: 97.1% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Child labor children ages 5-14:
total number: 26,658
percentage: 1 % (2000 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 22.7%
male: 22.3%
female: 23.2% (2012)
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
Government type:
name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday:
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2014)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President BASESCU has twice been temporarily suspended since assuming his post: first from 20 April-23 May 2007, second from 6 July-27 August 2012; he survived two national recall referendums
head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Daniel CONSTANTIN, Hunor KELEMAN, Gabriel OPREA (since 5 March 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
election results: Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges and organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Political parties and leaders:
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]
Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party)
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]
National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]
New Republic Party or NR [Mihai NEAMTU]
People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugene TOMAC]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Iulian BUGA (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER (since 14 December 2012)
embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
National symbol(s):
golden eagle
National anthem:
name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
Economy overview:
Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession due to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. As a result of the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. GDP contracted from 2009 to 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. In September 2013, the Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on stand-by agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms, although Bucharest announced that it does not intend to draw funds under the agreement. Economic growth accelerated in 2013, driven by strong industrial exports and an excellent agricultural harvest; in December 2013 inflation dropped to a historical low annual rate of 1.6%; and the current account deficit was reduced substantially. Yet, progress on structural reforms is uneven and the economy still is vulnerable to shocks.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$288.5 billion (2013 est.)
$278.7 billion (2012 est.)
$277 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$188.9 billion (2013 est.)
GDP real growth rate:
3.5% (2013 est.)
0.6% (2012 est.)
2.3% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita (PPP):
$14,400 (2013 est.)
$13,700 (2012 est.)
$13,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
24.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
23.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP composition, by end use:
household consumption: 71.4%
government consumption: 6.2%
investment in fixed capital: 23.6%
investment in inventories: -0.7%
exports of goods and services: 42.2%
imports of goods and services: 42.7%
(2013 est.)
GDP composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 6.4%
industry: 34.2%
services: 59.4% (2013 est.)
Agriculture products:
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery, auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial production growth rate:
8% (2013 est.)
Labor force:
9.451 million (2013 est.)
Labor force by occupation:
agriculture: 29%
industry: 28.6%
services: 42.4% (2012)
Unemployment rate:
7.3% (2013 est.)
6.5% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line:
22.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 14.1%
highest 10%: 7.5% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income Gini index:
27.4 (2011)
24.2 (2010)
revenues: $60.11 billion
expenditures: $64.85 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
31.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus or deficit:
Public debt:
38.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
37.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2013 est.)
3.4% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
4% (31 December 2013)
5.25% (31 December 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2013 est.)
11.49% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$30.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$26.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$74.21 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$66.13 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$91.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$90.75 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$43.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$31.71 billion (31 December 2012)
$24.26 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Current account balance:
-$1.986 billion (2013 est.)
-$7.48 billion (2012 est.)
$65.84 billion (2013 est.)
$57.86 billion (2012 est.)
Exports commodities:
machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels
Exports partners:
Germany 18.9%, Italy 12.3%, France 7.1%, Turkey 5.5%, Hungary 5.5% (2012)
$73.42 billion (2013 est.)
$70.17 billion (2012 est.)
Imports commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products
Imports partners:
Germany 17.5%, Italy 11%, Hungary 9.1%, France 5.7%, Russia 4.4%, Poland 4.3%, Austria 4.2%, Kazakhstan 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$48.78 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$46.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt external:
$131.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$131.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home:
$84.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$78.05 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment abroad:
$1.455 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.298 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates:
lei (RON) per US dollar -
3.41 (2013 est.)
3.4682 (2012 est.)
3.1779 (2010 est.)
3.0493 (2009)
2.5 (2008)
Electricity production:
56.71 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity consumption:
52.36 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity exports:
1.15 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity imports:
1.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity installed generating capacity:
21.77 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels:
55.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity from nuclear fuels:
6.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity from hydroelectric plants:
30.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity from other renewable sources:
8.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil production:
101,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil exports:
1,604 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil imports:
122,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil proved reserves:
600 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products production:
218,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products consumption:
218,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products exports:
75,480 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products imports:
44,070 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas production:
10.63 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas consumption:
13.48 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas exports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas imports:
2.85 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves:
105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
86.19 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telephones mobile cellular:
22.7 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)
Telephones main lines in use:
4.68 million (2012)
Broadcast media:
a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
7.787 million (2009)
Internet hosts:
2.667 million (2012)
45 (2013)
Airports with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports with unpaved runways:
total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
2 (2013)
gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
total: 10,777 km
broad gauge: 134 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,639 km 1.435-m gauge (4,020 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 4 km 1.000-m gauge (2012)
total: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
Merchant marine:
total: 5
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
Military branches:
Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
20-35 years of age for compulsory male military service; conscription ended 2006, but military service remains mandatory; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,601,234
females age 16-49: 5,428,939 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,550,409
females age 16-49: 4,507,880 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 117,798
female: 111,607 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.29% of GDP (2012)
1.3% of GDP (2011)
1.29% of GDP (2010)
Transnational Issues
Disputes international:
the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 248 (2012)
Trafficking in persons: